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Should Age at Onset of Parkinsonism be the End Point of Interest in Investigations of the Link Between Exosomal α-Synuclein and Manganese Exposure in Welders?

Rutchik, Jonathan MD, MPH; Ratner, Marcia H. PhD, DABT

Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine: September 24, 2019 - Volume Publish Ahead of Print - Issue - p
doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000001720
Letter to the Editor: PDF Only

Division of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA and Neurology, Environmental and Occupational Medicine Associates, Mill Valley, CA (Rutchik), Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA (Ratner).

Address correspondence to: Jonathan Rutchik, MD, MPH, Neurology, Environmental and Occupational Medicine Associates, Mill Valley, California United States (

All authors contributed equally to the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have no current specific competing interests to declare. However, Dr. Rutchik served as expert witnesses in this case. Drs. Rutchik and Ratner are occasionally asked to serve as expert witnesses and/or consultants in occupational and environmental chemical exposure injury cases.

Copyright © 2019 by the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine