A total of 2642 men employed at a dye and resin manufacturing plant in New Jersey were observed from the opening of the plant in 1952 through 1985, and their mortality rates were compared with the rates of United States white men. The workers' mortality experience was related to former employment at the Cincinnati Chemical Works, which had produced or used benzidine and β-naphthylamine. The 2553 men who had never worked at the Cincinnati Chemical Works had fewer than expected deaths from all causes combined (317 observed/402 expected) and equal numbers of observed and expected cancer deaths (89/89). The 89 former Cincinnati Chemical Works employees had an excess of cancer (17/8.6, P = .02), which was due to increased mortality from bladder (3/0.25, P = .004), kidney (2/0.21, P = .04), and CNS (2/0.22, P = .04) cancer. There also were several increases in cancers among men employed in certain work areas at the New Jersey plant. These included elevated mortality from lung (18/9.2, P = .01) and liver (3/0.46, P = .02) cancer among maintenance workers, from stomach (3/0.40, P = .02) and CNS (3/0.44, P = .02) cancer among azo dye workers, and from lung cancer (4/0.91, P = .03) among epichlorohydrin workers. The lung cancer excess among maintenance workers increased with length of employment, suggesting an association with an unidentified occupational exposure. Other associations were based on small numbers of deaths, and their interpretation is not clear.