First responders (FRs) commonly present for treatment with complex symptom constellations that frequently include posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and generalized anxiety. To date, no FR study has validated these measures on a treatment-seeking sample.
Confirmatory factor analysis was utilized to validate measures that assess these constructs (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7) on a treatment-seeking sample of FRs (N = 390).
The seven-factor posttraumatic stress disorder hybrid configuration was the best fit. The best fitting factor model of the depression measure was a two-factor structure, cognitive-affective and somatic depression. Lastly, generalized anxiety was a unidimensional construct.
Follow-up studies should validate these measures on each FR subtype.
We position these findings within the FR literature, review clinical implications for providers, and offer recommendations for future research.