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Can an Internal Locus of Control and Social Support Reduce Work-Related Levels of Stress and Strain?: A Comparative Study Between Spanish Owners and Managers

Ariza-Montes, Antonio PhD; Leal-Rodríguez, Antonio L. PhD; Rodríguez-Félix, Lucía PhD; Albort-Morant, Gema PhD

Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine: September 2017 - Volume 59 - Issue 9 - p 903–912
doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000001096
Original Articles

Objective: The aim of this article is to assess the role played by both individual and contextual factors in reducing the manager's levels of stress and strain within the workplace setting. This article also highlights the manager's locus of control (LOC) as an internal factor and emphasizes the social support variable as a contextual factor.

Methods: We use a sample of 332 respondents belonging to Spanish manufacturing and services firms and a structural equation modeling technique (partial least squares path modeling).

Results: The results reveal that there are significant differences between managers and owners about stress-strain relationship.

Conclusions: The study provides support for the literature on stress management, which emphasizes the importance of a LOC and social support in influencing stress and strain between managers and owners.

Department of Management, Universidad Loyola Andalucía, Córdoba, Spain (Dr Ariza-Montes, Dr Leal-Rodríguez), Department of Business Administration, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Santiago, Chile (Dr Ariza-Montes), and Department of Business Management and Marketing, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain (Dr Rodríguez-Félix, Dr Albort-Morant).

Address correspondence to: Antonio Ariza-Montes, PhD, Universidad Loyola Andalucía, Escritor Castilla Aguayo, 4, Córdoba 14004, Spain (

This work was supported by research funds from the Universidad Loyola Andalucía and Universidad de Sevilla.

We disclose that there is not any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within 3 years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence our work.

Copyright © 2017 by the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine