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Job Demands, Job Resources, Burnout, Work Engagement, and Their Relationships: An Analysis Across Sectors

Van den Broeck, Anja PhD; Elst, Tinne Vander PhD; Baillien, Elfi PhD; Sercu, Maarten MSc; Schouteden, Martijn PhD; De Witte, Hans PhD; Godderis, Lode PhD

Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine: April 2017 - Volume 59 - Issue 4 - p 369–376
doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000000964
Original Articles

Objective: The aim of this study was to gain insight in the importance of job demands and resources and the validity of the Job Demands Resources Model across sectors.

Methods: We used one-way analyses of variance to examine mean differences, and multi-group Structural Equation Modeling analyses to test the strength of the relationships among job demands, resources, burnout, and work engagement across the health care, industry, service, and public sector.

Results: The four sectors differed in the experience of job demands, resources, burnout, and work engagement, but they did not vary in how (strongly) job demands and resources associated with burnout and work engagement.

Conclusion: More attention is needed to decrease burnout and increase work engagement, particularly in industry, service, and the public sector. The Job Demands-Resources model may be helpful in this regard, as it is valid across sectors.

Research Center of Work and Organizational Studies, Faculty of Economics and Business, KU Leuven, Belgium (Drs Van den Broeck, Baillien); Optentia Research Focus Area, Vanderbijlpark Campus, North West University, Vanderbijlpark, South Africa (Drs Van den Broeck, De Witte); Knowledge, Information and Research Center, IDEWE, External Service for Prevention and Protection at Work, Heverlee, Belgium (Dr Vander Elst, Mr Sercu, Drs Schouteden, Godderis); Research Group Work, Organizational and Personnel Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, KU Leuven, Belgium (Drs De Witte, Vander Elst); and Centre Environment and Health, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, KU Leuven, Belgium (Dr Godderis).

Address correspondence to: Anja Van den Broeck, PhD, Warmoesberg 26, 1000 Brussel, Belgium (

Authors Van den Broeck, Elst, Baillien, Sercu, Schouteden, De Witte, and Godderis have no relationships/conditions/circumstances that present potential conflict of interest.

The JOEM editorial board and planners have no financial interest related to this research.

Copyright © 2017 by the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine