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Fish Consumption, Levels of Nutrients and Contaminants, and Endocrine-Related Health Outcomes Among Older Male Anglers in Wisconsin

Christensen, Krista Y. PhD; Raymond, Michelle R. MS; Thompson, Brooke A. MPH; Anderson, Henry A. MD

Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine: July 2016 - Volume 58 - Issue 7 - p 668–675
doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000000758
Original Articles

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine associations between endocrine disorders, fish consumption habits, and biomarkers of contaminants and nutrients

Methods: Male anglers aged at least 50 years living in Wisconsin (n = 154) completed a questionnaire and provided biological samples. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to evaluate risk factors for endocrine outcomes.

Results: Nineteen percent of anglers reported either pre-diabetes or diabetes, while 4.6% reported thyroid disease. There were few associations between endocrine disease and fish consumption, fish meal source, or species, aside from a notable increase in diabetes risk with lake trout consumption. Docosahexaenoic acid, certain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and perfluorinated compounds were associated with an increased risk of diabetes or pre-diabetes. PCBs were associated with a decreased risk of thyroid disease.

Conclusion: Fish consumption patterns may affect risk for endocrine outcomes, but direction and magnitude of association may depend on the balance of the contaminants and nutrients in the individual diet.

Wisconsin Department of Health Services, Madison.

Address correspondence to: Krista Y. Christensen, PhD, Wisconsin Division of Public Health, Bureau of Environmental and Occupational Health, 1 West Wilson Street, Room 145, Madison, WI 53703 (

This study was funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency Great Lakes National Program Office under Assistance no. GL-00E00452-0. This article has not been subjected to the Agency's required peer and policy review and therefore does not necessarily reflect the views of the Agency and no official endorsement should be inferred.

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

Copyright © 2016 by the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine