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Direct and Mediated Relationships Between Participation in a Telephonic Health Coaching Program and Health Behavior, Life Satisfaction, and Optimism

Sears, Lindsay E. PhD; Coberley, Carter R. PhD; Pope, James E. MD

Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine: July 2016 - Volume 58 - Issue 7 - p 690–695
doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000000767

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the direct and mediated effects of a telephonic health coaching program on changes to healthy behaviors, life satisfaction, and optimism.

Methods: This longitudinal correlational study of 4881 individuals investigated simple and mediated relationships between participation in a telephonic health risk coaching program and outcomes from three annual Well-being Assessments.

Results: Program participation was directly related to improvements in healthy behaviors, life satisfaction and optimism, and indirect effects of coaching on these variables concurrently and over a one-year time lag were also supported.

Conclusions: Given previous research that improvements to life satisfaction, optimism, and health behaviors are valuable for individuals, employers, and communities, a clearer understanding of intervention approaches that may impact these outcomes simultaneously can drive greater program effectiveness and value on investment.

Center for Health Research, Healthways, Inc, Franklin, Tennessee.

Address correspondence to: Lindsay E. Sears, PhD, Center for Health Research, Healthways, Inc, 701 Cool Springs Boulevard, Franklin, TN 37067 (

This study was funded by Healthways, Inc., and all authors were employees and/or shareholders of this company at the time the research was conducted.

Copyright © 2016 by the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine