Secondary Logo

Institutional members access full text with Ovid®

Share this article on:

The SHIELD (Safety & Health Improvement: Enhancing Law Enforcement Departments) StudyMixed Methods Longitudinal Findings

Kuehl, Kerry S. MD, DrPH; Elliot, Diane L. MD; MacKinnon, David P. PhD; O’Rourke, Holly P. MA; DeFrancesco, Carol MALS; Miočević, Milica MA; Valente, Matthew MA; Sleigh, Adriana BS; Garg, Bharti MD, MPH; McGinnis, Wendy MS; Kuehl, Hannah MA

Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine: May 2016 - Volume 58 - Issue 5 - p 492–498
doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000000716

The SHIELD (Safety & Health Improvement: Enhancing Law Enforcement Departments) Study is a worksite wellness team-based intervention among police and sheriff departments assessing the program's effectiveness to reduce occupational risks and unhealthy lifestyle behaviors. The SHIELD program focused on improving diet, physical activity, body weight and sleep, and reducing the effects of unhealthy stress and behaviors, such as tobacco and substance abuse. The SHIELD team-based health promotion program was found to be feasible and effective at 6 months in improving diet, sleep, stress, and overall quality of life of law enforcement department personnel. Both intervention and control groups were followed for 24 months, and we report those durability findings, along with qualitative group interview results that provide insight into the changes of the long-term outcomes. Long-term effects were observed for consumption of fruits and vegetables, and there was some evidence for effects on tobacco and alcohol use. Assessment of dietary habits, physical activity behaviors, weight loss maintenance, and substance use is rare more than 1 year following an intervention, and in general, initial positive changes do not persist in prior research. The SHIELD program was feasible, effective, and durable for improving dietary changes.

Department of Medicine (Dr Kuehl, Dr Elliot, Ms DeFrancesco, Ms Sleigh, Dr Garg, Ms McGinnis, and Ms Kuehl), Oregon Health & Science University, Portland; and Department of Psychology (Dr MacKinnon, Ms O’Rourke, Ms Miočević, and Mr Valente), Arizona State University, Tempe.

Address correspondence to: Kerry S. Kuehl, MD, DrPH, Oregon Health & Science University CR110, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239 3098 (

This research was supported by a grant from the Centers for Disease Control and the National Institute on Occupational Safety and Health [grant No. 5R01OH009676–02].

The PHLAME firefighter program is distributed through the Center for Health Promotion Research at Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU). OHSU and Drs. Kuehl and Elliot have a financial interest from the commercial sale of technologies used in this research. This potential conflict of interest has been reviewed and managed by the OHSU Conflict of Interest in Research Committee.

Copyright © 2016 by the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine