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Paraoxonase 1 and Its Relationship With Pesticide Biomarkers in Indigenous Mexican Farmworkers

Bernal-Hernández, Yael Yvette PhD; Medina-Díaz, Irma Martha PhD; Barrón-Vivanco, Briscia Socorro PhD; Robledo-Marenco, María de Lourdes PhD; Girón-Pérez, Manuel Iván PhD; Pérez-Herrera, Norma Elena PhD; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet PhD; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo PhD; Rojas-García, Aurora Elizabeth PhD

Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine: March 2014 - Volume 56 - Issue 3 - p 281–290
doi: 10.1097/01.jom.0000438381.25597.88
Original Articles

Objective: Biomarkers of pesticide toxicity and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) phenotype and genotypes were evaluated in indigenous Mexican farmworkers exposed mainly to organophosphate (OP) pesticides.

Methods: Acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and PON1 activities—arylesterase and CMPAase activities—were evaluated spectrophotometrically. PON1 55 and 192 polymorphisms were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Hematological parameters were evaluated using a cytometer.

Results: Butyrylcholinesterase and arylesterase activities were lower in farmworkers, who also showed lower levels of leukocytes but higher percentages of lymphocytes when compared with the nonexposed group. Our results showed a high frequency of OP, high hydrolysis-related PON1 alleles (LL/QR and LL/RR) in the study population. An association was observed between CMPAase activity and PON1Q192R polymorphism.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that pesticide exposure modifies biochemical and hematological biomarkers in the study population, and that the phenotype of PON1 (CMPAase) is a sensible susceptibility biomarker of OP pesticide toxicity.

From the Laboratorio de Contaminación y Toxicología Ambiental (Drs Bernal-Hernández, Medina-Díaz, Barrón-Vivanco, Robledo-Marenco, Girón-Pérez, and Rojas-García), Secretaría de Investigación y Posgrado, Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Tepic, Nayarit, Mexico; Posgrado en Ciencias Biológico Agropecuarias (Dr Bernal-Hernández), Unidad Académica de Agricultura, Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Xalisco, Nayarit, Mexico; Laboratorio de Enfermedades Crónicas y Degenerativas (Dr Pérez-Herrera), Unidad Interinstitucional de Investigación Clínica y Epidemiológica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico; Departamento de Toxicología (Dr Quintanilla-Vega), Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico; and Facultad de Enfermería (Dr Cerda-Flores), Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Mexico.

Address correspondence to: Aurora Elizabeth Rojas-García, PhD, Laboratorio de Contaminación y Toxicología Ambiental, Secretaría de Investigación y Posgrado, Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, 63155 Tepic, Nayarit, Mexico (

This study was supported by COCyTEN-Mexico FOMIX CO1-44643.

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine