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The Well-Being Assessment for Productivity: A Well-Being Approach to Presenteeism

Prochaska, James O. PhD; Evers, Kerry E. PhD; Johnson, Janet L. PhD; Castle, Patricia H. MA; Prochaska, Janice M. PhD; Sears, Lindsay E. PhD; Rula, Elizabeth Y. PhD; Pope, James E MD

Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine: July 2011 - Volume 53 - Issue 7 - p 735–742
doi: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e318222af48
Original Articles

Objective: To develop a presenteeism assessment, the Well-Being Assessment for Productivity (WBA-P), that provides an informative evaluation of job performance loss due to well-being related barriers.

Method: The WBA-P was developed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis using survey data from 1827 employed individuals. Evidence of criterion-related validity was established using multivariate analysis of variance across measures of health and well-being.

Results: A hierarchical, two-factor model demonstrated good fit and included factors capturing productivity loss from personal reasons (WBA-PP) and work environment (WBA-PW). Significant interactions existed between these and previously validated presenteeism measures with respect to physical and emotional health, risk factors, and life evaluation.

Conclusions: This initial psychometric evidence suggests that the WBA-P and its subscales are valid measures of presenteeism that capture actionable well-being–related performance barriers.

From the Cancer Prevention Research Center, University of Rhode Island (Dr Prochaska); Pro-Change Behavior Systems, Inc (Dr Evers, Dr Johnson, Dr Prochaska, Dr Castle), West Kingston, RI; and Center for Health Research, Healthways, Inc (Dr Sears, Dr Rula, Dr Pope), Franklin, Tenn.

Address correspondence to: Kerry E. Evers, PhD, Pro-Change Behavior Systems, Inc, PO Box 755, West Kingston, RI 02892 (

The research presented was conducted by Pro-Change Behavior Systems, Inc, and was funded by Healthways, Inc. Research design and the drafting and editing of the manuscript was a collaborative effort among all authors, who are employees of either the University of Rhode Island or Pro-Change Behavior Systems or Healthways.

©2011The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine