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Medication Adherence, Comorbidities, and Health Risk Impacts on Workforce Absence and Job Performance

Loeppke, Ronald MD, MPH; Haufle, Vince MPH; Jinnett, Kim PhD; Parry, Thomas PhD; Zhu, Jianping PhD; Hymel, Pamela MD, MPH; Konicki, Doris MHS

Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine: June 2011 - Volume 53 - Issue 6 - p 595–604
doi: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e318223470b

Objective: To understand impacts of medication adherence, comorbidities, and health risks on workforce absence and job performance.

Methods: Retrospective observational study using employees' medical/pharmacy claims and self-reported health risk appraisals.

Results: Statin medication adherence in individuals with Coronary Artery Disease was significant predictor (P < 0.05) of decreasing absenteeism. Insulin, oral hypoglycemic, or metformin medication adherence in type 2 diabetics was significant (P < 0.05) predictor of decreasing job performance. Number of comorbidities was found as significant (P < 0.5) predictor of absenteeism in five of nine subsamples. Significant links (P < 0.05) between high health risks and lower job performance were found across all nine subsamples.

Conclusions: Results suggest integrated health and productivity management strategies should include an emphasis on primary and secondary prevention to reduce health risks in addition to tertiary prevention efforts of disease management and medication management.

Supplemental Digital Content is Available in the Text.

From the US Preventive Medicine, Inc, Jacksonville, Fla (Dr Loeppke); Alere Health, Atlanta, Ga (Mr Haufle); Integrated Benefits Institute, San Francisco, Calif (Drs Jinnett and Parry); Alere Health (Dr Zhu); Walt Disney Parks and Resorts, The Walt Disney Company, Burbank, Calif (Dr Hymel); and American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Elk Grove, Ill (Ms Konicki).

Address correspondence to: Ron Loeppke, MD, 5166 Remington Dr, Brentwood, TN 37027 (

The study is funded by the National Pharmaceutical Council, a research and education organization supported by more than 20 of the nation's leading research-based pharmaceutical companies.

Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Web site (

©2011The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine