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The Cost of Poor Sleep: Workplace Productivity Loss and Associated Costs

Rosekind, Mark R. PhD; Gregory, Kevin B. BS; Mallis, Melissa M. PhD; Brandt, Summer L. MA; Seal, Brian PhD; Lerner, Debra PhD

Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine: January 2010 - Volume 52 - Issue 1 - p 91-98
doi: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e3181c78c30
Original Articles

Objective: To assess the impact of sleep disturbances on work performance/productivity.

Methods: Employees (N = 4188) at four US corporations were surveyed about sleep patterns and completed the Work Limitations Questionnaire. Respondents were classified into four categories: insomnia, insufficient sleep syndrome, at-risk, and good sleep. Employer costs related to productivity changes were estimated through the Work Limitations Questionnaire. Performance/productivity, safety, and treatment measures were compared using a one-way analysis of variance model.

Results: Compared with at-risk and good-sleep groups, insomnia and insufficient sleep syndrome groups had significantly worse productivity, performance, and safety outcomes. The insomnia group had the highest rate of sleep medication use. The other groups were more likely to use nonmedication treatments. Fatigue-related productivity losses were estimated to cost $1967/employee annually.

Conclusions: Sleep disturbances contribute to decreased employee productivity at a high cost to employers.

From Alertness Solutions (Dr Rosekind, Mr Gregory), Cupertino, Calif; Institutes for Behavior Resources, Inc. (Dr Mallis), Baltimore, Md; San Jose State University Research Foundation (Ms Brandt), Moffett Field, Calif; sanofi-aventis (Dr Seal), Bridgewater, NJ; and Tufts Medical Center and the Tufts University School of Medicine, Sackler Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences (Dr Lerner), Boston, Mass.

Address correspondence to: Mark R. Rosekind, PhD, Alertness Solutions, 1601 South De Anza Blvd, Suite 200, Cupertino, CA 95014; E-mail:

©2010The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine