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Health-Related Workplace Productivity Measurement: General and Migraine-Specific Recommendations from the ACOEM Expert Panel

Loeppke, Ronald MD, MPH; Hymel, Pamela A. MD, MPH; Lofland, Jennifer H. PharmD, MPH; Pizzi, Laura T. PharmD; Konicki, Doris L. MHS; Anstadt, George W. MD; Baase, Catherine MD; Fortuna, Joseph MD, MPH; Scharf, Ted PhDon behalf of the members of the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine Expert Panel

Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine: April 2003 - Volume 45 - Issue 4 - p 349-359
doi: 10.1097/01.jom.0000063619.37065.e2

An establishment of health-related productivity measurements and critical evaluation of health-related productivity tools is needed. An expert panel was created. A literature search was conducted to identify health-related productivity measurement tools. Each instrument was reviewed for: 1) supporting scientific evidence (eg, reliability and validity); 2) applicability to various types of occupations, diseases, and level of severity of disease; 3) ability to translate data into a monetary unit; and 4) practicality. A modified Delphi technique was used to build consensus. The expert panel recommended absenteeism, presenteeism, and employee turnover/replacement costs as key elements of workplace health-related productivity measurement. The panel also recommended that productivity instruments should: 1) have supporting scientific evidence, 2) be applicable to the particular work setting, 3) be supportive of effective business decision-making, and 4) be practical. Six productivity measurement tools were reviewed. The panel recommended necessary elements of workplace health-related productivity measurement, key characteristics for evaluating instruments, and tools for measuring work loss. Continued research, validation, and on-going evaluation of health-related productivity instruments are needed.

From the Health and Productivity Corporation of America, Franklin, Tennessee (Dr Loeppke); Hughes Electronics, El Segundo, California (Dr Hymel); Office of Health Policy and Clinical Outcomes, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (Dr Lofland and Dr Pizzi); American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Arlington Heights, IL (Dr Konicki); Pittsford, New York (Dr Anstadt); Dow Chemical, Midland, Michigan (Dr Baase); Dorland, Sweeney & Jones, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Dr Fortuna); and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, Ohio (Dr Scharf).

Address correspondence to: Ronald Loeppke, MD, MPH, President and CEO, Health and Productivity Corporation of America, P.O. Box 1503, Franklin, TN 37065; E-mail:

Astra Zeneca funded this project. Additional support for Jennifer H. Lofland’s time was provided by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality K-08 00005 Mentored Clinical Scientist Award and a PhRMA Foundation Grant.

The opinions, findings, and conclusions expressed in this report are those of the authors and are not necessarily those of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

This article was co-written by an employee of the US Government as part of his official duties and is therefore not subject to US copyright.

©2003The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine