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Gulf War Illnesses: Causation and Treatment

Hodgson, Michael J. MD, MPH; Kipen, Howard M. MD, MPH

Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: June 1999 - Volume 41 - Issue 6 - p 443-452
Original Articles

Soldiers returning from the Gulf War in 1991 described a range of symptoms, including some consistent with the chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and multiple chemical sensitivity. Well-defined adverse health events attributable to service in the Gulf occurred. However, controlled epidemiological studies in Gulf War veterans and controls describe significant excesses of symptoms that were not clearly associated with pathologic disease. At least 12% of veterans currently receive some form of disability from the Department of Veterans Affairs. A number of reports outline theories proposed to explain the excess, but few are scientifically supported. Management guidelines for this spectrum of disorders resembles that of many of "emerging overlap syndromes," including multiple chemical sensitivity, chronic fatigue syndrome, and fibromyalgia. They include the establishment of a trusting doctor-patient relationship, negotiations around a common ground of scientific and etiologic beliefs, non-labeling of the disorder, and work toward recovery in the absence of clear etiologic answers.

From the Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Conn. (Dr Hodgson); and the Division of Occupational Medicine, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Department of Environmental and Community Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (Dr Kipen).

Address correspondence to: Howard M. Kipen, MD, MPH, EOHSI, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854.

© 1999 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.