Bladder cancer screening faces several obstacles, including low yield, numerous false-positive results, and the absence of a single effective screening test. We present a model of a screening program that (1) targets an occupational cohort exposed to a putative carcinogen, to increase the detection of disease, (2) uses four screening tests in parallel to maximize case detection, and (3) defines a diagnostic protocol that minimizes the number of invasive procedures by utilizing both flexible and rigid cystoscopy. In a hypothetical cohort of 1000 men aged 45 to 74 years potentially exposed to a bladder carcinogen, the model would find eight of the nine detectable cancers, with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 78%. In addition, the model allows the sensitivities, specificities, and predictive values of the individual screening tests to be.compared and evaluated in a single cohort.
©1990 The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine