Departments: Supplement: Proceedings of the Fifth PANDA Symposium on “Anesthesia and Neurodevelopment in Children”Use of Anesthesia for Imaging Studies and Interventional Procedures in ChildrenHuang, Yolanda Y. MD, PhD*; Li, Lucy BA†; Monteleone, Matthew MD*; Ferrari, Lynne MD‡; States, Lisa J. MD§; Riviello, James J. MD∥; Kernie, Steven G. MD¶; Mencin, Ali A. MD¶; Gupta, Sumit MD, PhD, FRCPC#; Sun, Lena S. MD* Author Information Departments of *Anesthesiology ¶Pediatrics ∥Neurology; Columbia University †Columbia University School of Medicine, New York, NY ‡Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA §Department of Radiology, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA #Division of Hematology/Oncology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose. Address correspondence to: Yolanda Y. Huang, MD, PhD, Columbia University College of Physician and Surgeons, 622 West 168th Street, PH 544, New York, NY 10032 (e-mail: [email protected]). Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology 28(4):p 400-404, October 2016. | DOI: 10.1097/ANA.0000000000000355 Buy Metrics Abstract Ongoing investigation from the Pediatric Anesthesia NeuroDevelopment Assessment (PANDA) study hopes to examine the long-term effect on cognitive and language development of a single anesthetic exposure in children undergoing inguinal hernia repair. The fifth PANDA Symposium, held in April 2016, continued the mission of previous symposia to examine evidence from basic science and clinical studies on potential neurotoxic effects of anesthetics on developing brain. At the 2016 Symposium, a panel of specialists from nonsurgical pediatric disciplines including anesthesiology, radiology, neurology, gastroenterology, oncology, cardiology, and critical care reviewed use of anesthesia in their practices, including how concern over possible neurodevelopmental effects of early childhood anesthetic exposure has changed discussion with patients and families regarding risks and benefits of imaging studies and interventional procedures involving sedation or anesthesia. This paper summarizes presentations from nonsurgical pediatric specialists at the 2016 PANDA Symposium. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.