This single-center, retrospective study investigated the outcome effect of the combined intensity and duration of differences between actual cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and optimal cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPopt), and also for absolute CPP, in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH).
A total of 378 TBI and 432 aSAH patients treated in a neurointensive care unit between 2008 and 2018 with at least 24 hours of CPPopt data during the first 10 days following injury, and with 6-month (TBI) or 12-month (aSAH) extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E) scores, were included in the study. ∆CPPopt-insults (∆CPPopt=actual CPP−CPPopt) and CPP-insults were visualized as 2-dimensional plots to highlight the combined effect of insult intensity (mm Hg) and duration (min) on patient outcome.
In TBI patients, a zone of ∆CPPopt ± 10 mm Hg was associated with more favorable outcome, with transitions towards unfavorable outcome above and below this zone. CPP in the range of 60 to 80 mm Hg was associated with higher GOS-E, whereas CPP outside this range was associated with lower GOS-E. In aSAH patients, there was no clear transition from higher to lower GOS-E for ∆CPPopt-insults; however, there was a transition from favorable to unfavorable outcome when CPP was <80 mm Hg.
TBI patients with CPP close to CPPopt exhibited better clinical outcomes, and absolute CPP within the 60 to 80 mm Hg range was also associated with favorable outcome. In aSAH patients, there was no clear transition for ∆CPPopt-insults in relation to outcome, whereas generally high absolute CPP values were associated overall with favorable recovery.