Supplement: Papper Event 2021COVID-19: A Catalyst for Transforming Randomized TrialsLee, Jennifer J. MD*; Price, Jerri C. MD, PhD*; Jackson, William M. MD, MS*; Whittington, Robert A. MD*; Ioannidis, John P.A. MD, DSc†,‡,§,∥ Author Information *Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY †Department of Medicine, Stanford Prevention Research Center Departments of ‡Epidemiology and Population Health §Biomedical Data Science ∥Statistics, Stanford University, and Meta-Research Innovation Center at Stanford (METRICS), Stanford, CA Presented virtually on March 20, 2021, at the Papper Event hosted by the Department of Anesthesiology at Columbia University Irving Medical Center in New York, NY. The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose. Address correspondence to: John P.A. Ioannidis, MD, DSc. E-mail: [email protected]. Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology: January 2022 - Volume 34 - Issue 1 - p 107-112 doi: 10.1097/ANA.0000000000000804 Buy Metrics Abstract The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic incited a global clinical trial research agenda of unprecedented speed and high volume. This expedited research activity in a time of crisis produced both successes and failures that offer valuable learning opportunities for the scientific community to consider. Successes include the implementation of large adaptive and pragmatic trials as well as burgeoning efforts toward rapid data synthesis and open science principles. Conversely, notable failures include: (1) inadequate study design and execution; (2) data reversal, fraud, and retraction; and (3) research duplication and waste. Other challenges that became highlighted were the need to find unbiased designs for investigating complex, nonpharmaceutical interventions and the use of routinely collected data for outcomes assessment. This article discusses these issues juxtaposing the COVID-19 trials experience against trials in anesthesiology and other fields. These lessons may serve as a positive catalyst for transforming future clinical trial research. Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.