Portable automated infrared pupillometry is becoming increasingly popular. To generate an objective reference base, the Neurological Pupil index
(NPi) which combines different values of the pupillary light reflex
is being introduced into clinical practice. In this explorative study, we examined different aspects of the NPi in relation to clinical severity and outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage
Materials and Methods:
Patients with serial assessment of the NPi (NeurOptics pupillometer
NPi-200, Irvine, CA) starting no later than day 2 after aSAH onset were included in the study. Relative numbers of pathologic NPi’s, absolute NPi values, and their variances were compared according to aSAH clinical severity grade, functional outcome, and case fatality. The correlation between NPi and intracranial pressure
, and NPi periodicity, were also examined.
In total, 18 patients with 4456 NPi values were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. The general trend of the NPi over time reflected the course of the neurological illness. Mean NPi tended to be lower in patients with clinically severe compared with nonsevere aSAH (3.75±0.40 vs. 4.56±0.06; P
=0.171), and in patients with unfavorable compared with favorable outcomes (3.64±0.48 vs. 4.50±0.08; P
=0.198). The mean variance of the NPi was higher in patients with severe compared with nonsevere aSAH (0.49±0.17 vs. 0.06±0.02; P
=0.025). Pathologic NPi values were recorded more frequently in patients with severe compared with nonsevere aSAH (16.3%±8.8% vs. 0.0%±0.0%; P
=0.002), and in those with unfavorable compared with favorable outcomes (19.2%±10.6% vs. 0.7%±0.6%; P
=0.017). NPi was inversely correlated with intracranial pressure
<0.001). We observed a circadian pattern of NPi’s which was seemingly disrupted in patients with fatal outcome.
On the basis of this preliminary study, the assessment of NPi by pupillometry is feasible and might complement multimodal neuromonitoring in patients with aSAH.