Supplement: Proceedings of the Sixth PANDA Symposium on “Anesthesia and Neurodevelopment in Children”Using Neuroimaging to Study the Effects of Pain, Analgesia, and Anesthesia on Brain DevelopmentChen, Jerri MD, PhD*; Gadi, Ghadah U. MBBS, MSc*; Panigrahy, Ashok MD†; Tam, Emily W.Y. MDCM, MAS‡Author Information *Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY †Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA ‡Department of Pediatrics (Neurology), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, CA J.C. and G.U.G. contributed equally. The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose. Address correspondence to: Jerri Chen, MD, PhD, Columbia University Medical Center, CH 4-440 North, 622 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032 (e-mail: email@example.com). Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology: January 2019 - Volume 31 - Issue 1 - p 119-121 doi: 10.1097/ANA.0000000000000549 Buy Metrics Abstract Neuroimaging has been increasingly used as a modality to study the impact of pain, analgesia, and anesthetics on pediatric neurodevelopment. The sixth biennial Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopmental Assessment (PANDA) Symposium addressed the 2016 US Food and Drug Administration drug safety warning regarding the potential neurotoxic effects of commonly used anesthetic and sedative medications in children, and included a session discussing the use of various neuroimaging techniques, to detect structural, metabolic, and functional brain changes that can occur with exposure to pain and to anesthetic medications. The presenters concluded that advanced multimodal magnetic resonance imaging techniques are useful in detecting the aforementioned changes, which were found to be pain-specific and anesthetic agent-specific. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.