Supplement: Proceedings of the Sixth PANDA Symposium on “Anesthesia and Neurodevelopment in Children”SmartTots Outcomes Workshop 2017: Notes From a Round Table Discussion About Outcome MeasuresJackson, William M. MD*; McCullough, Aston K. PhD, MS, MA†,‡; Rauh, Virginia ScD§; Salorio, Cynthia PhD∥Author Information *Department of Anesthesiology §Heilbronn Department of Population and Family Health, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University ‡Department of Biobehavioral Sciences, Columbia University Teachers College, New York, NY ∥Department of Neuropsychology, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD †Department of Kinesiology, Arnold School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose. Address correspondence to: William M. Jackson, MD, 630 W. 168th St., PH5-505, New York, NY 10032 (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology: January 2019 - Volume 31 - Issue 1 - p 115-118 doi: 10.1097/ANA.0000000000000550 Buy Metrics Abstract An important element of designing research studies is the selection of appropriate outcome measures to ensure that the question posed is properly answered given the evidence. The selection of outcome measures is especially important when tackling complex, interdisciplinary problems, where appropriate outcome measures may not be as simple as a blood test or a laboratory value. One such area of study is the research into neurodevelopmental outcomes after early exposure to anesthetic agents. Concern has arisen recently that certain anesthetic agents may be toxic to the developing brain; a public-private partnership, SmartTots, was formed in conjunction with the Food and Drug Administration and various stakeholders to develop safe anesthetic regimens for neonates and infants who require surgery. However, as research has progressed, questions have arisen regarding the best outcome measures to use in order to detect a true effect, as well as the optimal window in which to measure. These issues were discussed in a round table meeting during the SmartTots meeting in September 2017, and a summary of the discussion is presented here. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.