Supplement: Proceedings of the Sixth PANDA Symposium on “Anesthesia and Neurodevelopment in Children”Report on the Sixth Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopmental Assessment (PANDA) Symposium, “Anesthesia and Neurodevelopment in Children”Lee, Jennifer J. MD; Sun, Lena S. MD; Levy, Richard J. MDAuthor Information Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY Supported by NIH/NIGMS R01GM103842-01 (R.J.L.) The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose. Address correspondence to: Richard J. Levy, MD, Department of Anesthesiology, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, 622 W. 168th Street, New York, NY 10032 (e-mail: [email protected]). Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology: January 2019 - Volume 31 - Issue 1 - p 103-107 doi: 10.1097/ANA.0000000000000538 Buy Metrics Abstract On April 14 and 15, 2018, the Sixth Biennial Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopmental Assessment (PANDA) Symposium convened at Columbia University Medical Center and New York Presbyterian/Morgan Stanley Children’s Hospital of New York. Since its inception over 10 years ago, the PANDA Symposium has served as a key forum for clinicians, researchers, and other major stakeholders to gather and review the current state of preclinical and clinical research related to anesthetic neurotoxicity in the developing brain. It has also served as an important venue for participants to gain insight and leverage support from various public and private regulatory bodies. Goals of this year’s meeting included assessments of how current knowledge has evolved, endeavors to develop common outcome measures, and formulations of future directions for research and policy. The Symposium program highlighted a diverse body of cutting-edge work, from results of preclinical and clinical studies to updates in clinical practice and policymaking. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.