Supplement: Proceedings of the Sixth PANDA Symposium on “Anesthesia and Neurodevelopment in Children”Outcomes Research in Vulnerable Pediatric PopulationsLee, Ka-Eun M. MD*; Diacovo, Thomas G. MD†; Calderon, Johanna PhD‡; Byrne, Mary W. PhD, DNP, MPH, FAAN§; Ing, Caleb MD, MS∥Author Information *Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University Medical Center, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons §Columbia University School of Nursing, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons ∥Department of Anesthesiology and Epidemiology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons and Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY †Departments of Pediatrics and Pharmacology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA ‡Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA Supported in part by AHRQ K08HS022941 (C.I.). The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose. Address correspondence to: Ka-Eun M. Lee, MD, Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University Medical Center, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 622 West 168th Street, BH 440-N, New York, NY 10032 (e-mail: email@example.com). Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology: January 2019 - Volume 31 - Issue 1 - p 140-143 doi: 10.1097/ANA.0000000000000544 Buy Metrics Abstract The Pediatric Anesthesia and Neurodevelopment Assessment (PANDA) study team held its biennial symposium in April 2018 to discuss issues on anesthetic neurotoxicity in the developing brain. One of the sessions invited speakers with different areas of expertise to discuss “Outcomes Research in Vulnerable Pediatric Populations.” The vulnerable populations included neonates, children with congenital heart disease, children from low socioeconomic status, and children with incarcerated parents. Each speaker presented some of the ongoing research efforts in these groups as well as the challenges encountered in studying them. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.