Supplement: Proceedings of the Sixth PANDA Symposium on “Anesthesia and Neurodevelopment in Children”Developmental Neurotoxicity: An UpdateHouck, Philipp J. MD*; Brambrink, Ansgar M. MD, PhD*; Waspe, Jennifer MD†; O’Leary, James D. MBBCh, BMedSci, MM (Clin Epi), FCARSI‡; Ko, Riva MD*Author Information *Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University, New York, NY †Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden ‡Department of Anesthesia, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose. Address correspondence to: Philipp J. Houck, MD, Department of Anesthesiology, 622 W 168th Street BH 4-440, New York, NY 10032 (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology: January 2019 - Volume 31 - Issue 1 - p 108-114 doi: 10.1097/ANA.0000000000000557 Buy Metrics Abstract In the section of “Developmental Neurotoxicity: An Update” of the Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopmental Assessment (PANDA) symposium 2018 the speakers presented the current literature in translational and clinical research. Dr. Brambrink spoke about translational research in anesthetic neurotoxicity, beginning with discovery in the rodent model, then focusing on evidence from nonhuman primates. Dr. Waspe applied the methodology of Adverse Outcome Pathways from the field of toxicology to developmental neurotoxicity of anesthetics. Dr. O’Leary presented relevant clinical studies that were published in 2017 divided by a focus on academic performance, clinical outcomes or diagnoses, or neuropsychological testing. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.