Supplement: Proceedings of the Sixth PANDA Symposium on “Anesthesia and Neurodevelopment in Children”A Summary of Preclinical Poster Presentations at the Sixth Biennial Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopment Assessment (PANDA) SymposiumGriffiths, Keren K. MD, PhD*; Morgan, Philip G. MD†; Johnson, Simon C. PhD‡; Nambyiah, Pratheeban BM, BCh§; Soriano, Sulpicio G. MD∥; Johnson, Kenneth PhD¶; Xu, Jing PhD#; Garber, Carol PhD, FAHA, FACSM, FNAK**; Maxwell, Lynne AB, MD††; Saraiya, Neeta MD*Author Information *Department of Anesthesiology **Department of Bio-behavioral Sciences, Teacher’s College, Columbia University ¶Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY †Department of Anesthesiology, University of Washington ‡Center for Integrative Brain Research, Seattle Children’s Research Institute, Seattle, WA ∥Department of Anesthesia, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA #Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD ††Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA §MRC London Institute of Medical Sciences, Imperial College, London, UK The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose. Address correspondence to: Neeta Saraiya, MD, Department of Anesthesiology, 622 W 168th Street, BH-440-N, New York, NY 10032 (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology: January 2019 - Volume 31 - Issue 1 - p 163-165 doi: 10.1097/ANA.0000000000000542 Buy Metrics Abstract The potential for long-term neurotoxic effects of anesthetics on the developing human brain has led to intensified research in this area. To date, the human evidence has been inconclusive, but a large body of animal evidence continues to demonstrate cause for concern. On April 14 and 15, 2018 the sixth biennial Pediatric Anesthesia and Neurodevelopmental Assessment (PANDA) study symposium was held at Morgan Stanley Children’s Hospital of New York. This symposium brought together clinicians and researchers and served as a platform to review preclinical and clinical data related to anesthesia and neurotoxicity in developing brains. The program participants included many active investigators in the field of anesthesia neurotoxicity as well as stakeholders from different backgrounds with the common interest of potential anesthetic neurotoxicity in children. The moderated poster session included presentations of preclinical animal research studies. These studies focused on defining the anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity phenotype, understanding the mechanism of injury and discovering potential inhibitors of neurotoxic effects. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.