Supplement: Proceedings of the Sixth PANDA Symposium on “Anesthesia and Neurodevelopment in Children”A Review of Clinical Poster Presentations at the Sixth Biennial Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopment Assessment (PANDA) SymposiumHaché, Manon MD*; Hansen, Tom G. MD, PhD†,‡; Graham, Ruth MD§; Sinton, Jamie W. MD∥; Adams, Phillip S. DO¶; Garber, Carol PhD#; Maxwell, Lynne MD**; Pinyavat, Teeda MD*Author Information *Department of Anesthesiology #Department of Bio-behavioral Sciences, Teacher’s College, Columbia University, New York, NY ∥Department of Anesthesiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX ¶Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh **Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA †Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Odense University Hospital ‡Department of Clinical Research-Anaesthesiology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark §Department of Anesthesia, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose. Address correspondence to: Teeda Pinyavat, MD, 622 W 168th Street, BH-440-N, New York, NY 10032 (e-mail: email@example.com). Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology: January 2019 - Volume 31 - Issue 1 - p 166-169 doi: 10.1097/ANA.0000000000000543 Buy Metrics Abstract Clinical researchers studying the long-term neurocognitive effects of anesthetic and sedative agents on children continue to struggle with identifying a phenotype for anesthetic neurotoxicity, the window of vulnerability, and the toxicity threshold in terms of concentration and duration. The Sixth Biennial Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopment Assessment (PANDA) symposium at Columbia University included a moderated poster presentation session where 4 investigators presented their latest contributions to the landscape of clinical anesthetic neurotoxicity research. A lack of standardization in the design of clinical studies in terms of age at exposure, duration and type of exposure, and outcome measures assessed were highlighted by all the investigators. Suggestions for the future direction of clinical trials included the implementation of more consistent study parameters and the employment of standardized neurocognitive testing and imaging before and after exposure to general anesthesia. Presentations covered a broad range of topics including the valid translation of preclinical studies to human subjects, the quantification of real-world exposures to anesthetic and sedative medications, and possible alternatives to these exposures. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.