Departments: Supplement: Proceedings of the Fifth PANDA Symposium on “Anesthesia and Neurodevelopment in Children”Optimal Timing of Surgical Procedures in Pediatric PatientsKo, Riva R. MD; Pinyavat, Teeda MD; Stylianos, Steven MD; Lambert, Sarah M. MD; Anderson, Richard C. MD; Gallin, Pamela F. MD; Maxwell, Lynne G. MD; Ward, Christopher G. MD; Deshpande, Jayant K. MD; Houck, Constance S. MD Author Information Department of Anesthesiology at Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY RR.K and T.P. are co-first authors. The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose. Address correspondence to: Riva R. Ko, MD, and Teeda Pinyavat, MD, Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University Medical Center, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, 622 W 168th Street, New York, NY 10032 (e-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]). Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology: October 2016 - Volume 28 - Issue 4 - p 395-399 doi: 10.1097/ANA.0000000000000354 Buy Metrics Abstract The Pediatric Anesthesia Neuro Development Assessment (PANDA) team at the Anesthesiology Department at Columbia University Medical Center held its fifth biennial symposium to discuss issues regarding potential neurotoxicity of anesthetic agents in pediatric patients. Overall optimal surgical timing as well as a “critical window” for surgery on a specialty specific basis are areas of focus for the American Academy of Pediatrics Surgical Advisory Panel. An ad hoc panel of pediatric surgical experts representing general surgery, urology, neurosurgery, and ophthalmology was assembled for this meeting and provided a dialogue focused on the benefits of early intervention versus potential anesthetic risk, addressing parental concerns, and the need for continued interdisciplinary collaboration in this area. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.