Departments: Supplement: Proceedings of the Fifth PANDA Symposium on “Anesthesia and Neurodevelopment in Children”Lessons Learned: Studying the Vulnerable BrainWolk, Risa MD; Ko, Riva R. MDAuthor Information Department of Anesthesiology at Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose. Address correspondence to: Riva R. Ko, MD, Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University Medical Center, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, 622W, 168th Street, New York, NY 10032 (e-mail: email@example.com). Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology: October 2016 - Volume 28 - Issue 4 - p 392-394 doi: 10.1097/ANA.0000000000000353 Buy Metrics Abstract Neurotoxicity related to early exposure to various insults, both anesthesia-related and nonanesthesia-related, is a topic of ongoing and increasing interest. To better understand the process by which this might occur, the fifth PANDA Symposium convened a session in which 4 notable neuroscientists discussed current concepts and research in neurodevelopment, highlighting periods of particular susceptibility and ways in which neural connectivity and systemic functioning may be affected. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.