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Lessons Learned

Studying the Vulnerable Brain

Wolk, Risa MD; Ko, Riva R. MD

Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology: October 2016 - Volume 28 - Issue 4 - p 392–394
doi: 10.1097/ANA.0000000000000353
Departments: Supplement: Proceedings of the Fifth PANDA Symposium on “Anesthesia and Neurodevelopment in Children”

Neurotoxicity related to early exposure to various insults, both anesthesia-related and nonanesthesia-related, is a topic of ongoing and increasing interest. To better understand the process by which this might occur, the fifth PANDA Symposium convened a session in which 4 notable neuroscientists discussed current concepts and research in neurodevelopment, highlighting periods of particular susceptibility and ways in which neural connectivity and systemic functioning may be affected.

Department of Anesthesiology at Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY

The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose.

Address correspondence to: Riva R. Ko, MD, Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University Medical Center, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, 622W, 168th Street, New York, NY 10032 (e-mail:

Received July 8, 2016

Accepted July 11, 2016

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