PANDA Symposium ProceedingsPreclinical Research Into the Effects of Anesthetics on the Developing Brain Promises and PitfallsMintz, Cyrus David MD, PhD*; Wagner, Meredith MD†; Loepke, Andreas W. MD, PhD‡Author Information *Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Neuroanesthesia †Department of Anesthesia, Columbia University Medical Center, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY ‡Department of Anesthesia, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose. Reprints: Andreas W. Loepke, MD, PhD, Department of Anesthesia, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave., Cincinnati, OH 45229-3039 (e-mail: [email protected]). Received July 16, 2012 Accepted July 16, 2012 Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology: October 2012 - Volume 24 - Issue 4 - p 362-367 doi: 10.1097/ANA.0b013e31826a0495 Buy Metrics Abstract Every year millions of children are treated with anesthetics and sedatives to alleviate pain and distress during invasive procedures. Accumulating evidence suggests the possibility for deleterious effects on the developing brain. This has led to significant concerns among pediatric anesthesiologists and to the formation of the Pediatric Anesthesia NeuroDevelopmental Assessment (PANDA) group and its biannual symposium. Not surprisingly, the majority of the data in this field have thus far been derived through laboratory research. Accordingly, this review summarizes the current state of animal research in this field, introduces some of the findings presented at the PANDA symposium, and addresses some of the difficulties in translating these findings to pediatric anesthesia practice, as discussed during the symposium. The symposium participants’ consensus was that significant preclinical and clinical research efforts are still needed to investigate this important concern for child health. © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.