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Women With Amenorrhea and Men With Menstruation

The Qualitative Experiences of People With Disorders of Sex Development in Nigeria

Sani, Abdurrahman Muhammad1; Arif, Ismi Ismail2; Arshad, Mohd Mursyid3; Mungadi, Ismaila Arzika4; Soh, Kim Geok5; Soh, Kim Lam6*

doi: 10.1097/jnr.0000000000000313
Original Articles: PDF Only
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PAP

Background Disorders of sex development (DSD) affect the quality of life of people who live with this condition. In developing countries, diagnoses of DSD are associated with a delay in presentation until the patients developed ambiguous physical traits and features.

Purpose This study explores the menstrual experiences of people with DSD and sex reassignment in Nigeria.

Methods A qualitative approach with a phenomenological study design was employed in this study to explore and describe the experiences of people with DSD at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital in Sokoto, Nigeria. The data were collected using face-to-face interviews, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using NVivo software.

Results The findings show that the participants experienced menstrual problems: men with menstruation and women with amenorrhea. The female participants generally described amenorrhea as a disappointment and linked menstruation with womanhood. Amenorrhea evinced both emotional and psychological effects. However, some of the female participants considered amenorrhea in a positive light and were happy with their lives without menstruation. The menstrual experiences of male participants included menarche, lower abdominal pain, regular monthly bleeding, and ovulation. The male participants described menstruation as a disaster in their lives and a source of anxiety, suicidal ideation, and depression. Menstruation negatively affected their psychosocial well-being.

Conclusions The menstrual experience of individuals with DSD negatively affects their quality of life. The women with DSD in this study showed a generally poor knowledge of menarche, menstruation, and puberty, indicating that their parents had ignored the initial symptoms of DSD. DSD were only recognized at puberty because of the development of ambiguous physical traits and of the onset of menstruation in men and the confirmation of amenorrhea in women.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1PhD, RN, FWACN (Fellow West African College of Nursing), Lecturer, Department of Nursing Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

2PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Professional Development and Continuing Education, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor State, Malaysia

3PhD, Senior Lecturer, Department of Professional Development and Continuing Education, University PutraMalaysia, Serdang, Selangor State, Malaysia

4MBBS, FRCS (Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England), FWACS, Professor, Department of Surgery, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

5PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Sport Studies, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor State, Malaysia

6PhD, RN, Associate Professor, Department of Nursing and Rehabilitation, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor State, Malaysia.

Accepted for publication: July 16, 2018

*Address correspondence to: Kim Lam Soh, Department of Nursing and Rehabilitation, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor State, Malaysia. Tel: +603 89472429; E-mail: sklam@upm.edu.my

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this article as: Sani, A., Arif, I., Arshad, M., Mungadi, I., Soh, K., & Soh, K. (2018). Women with amenorrhea and men with menstruation: The qualitative experiences of people with disorders of sex development in Nigeria. The Journal of Nursing Research, 00(0), 00–00. https://doi.org/10.1097/jnr.0000000000000313

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