Background: Post–intensive care syndrome (PICS) is a constellation of cognitive, physical, emotional, or psychiatric impairments that begins during or immediately after intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization and persists beyond discharge. This executive review summarizes literature on PICS in the general ICU population and identifies gaps in the literature specific to the neurocritical care patient. Method: The electronic databases PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were searched to identify any available literature on PICS. Results: Research in PICS management in the neurocritical care unit are summarized in 6 topic areas: (1) sedation management, (2) delirium management, (3) early mobilization, (4) ICU diary, (5) communication, and (6) family visiting. Conclusion: It is within the scope of practice that neurocritical care nurses provide and perform interventions aimed at reducing PICS and PICS-family. Additional research on PICS is required that focuses on the unique needs of patients with acute neurological injuries.
Questions or comments about this article may be directed to Cynthia A. Bautista, PhD APRN FNCS, at firstname.lastname@example.org. She is an Associate Professor, Egan School of Nursing and Health Studies, Fairfield University, Fairfield, CT.
Peter Nydahl, MScN RN, is Nurse Researcher, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany.
Mary Kay Bader, MSN RN CCNS FNCS FAHA, is Neuro/Critical Care Clinical Nurse Specialist, Mission Hospital, Mission Viejo, CA.
Sarah Livesay, DNP RN FNCS, is Associate Professor, Rush University College of Nursing, Chicago, IL.
Anne-Kathrin Cassier-Woidasky, PhD RN, is Professor, Nursing Sciences, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Cooperative State University, Stuttgart, Germany.
DaiWai M. Olson, PhD RN FNCS, is Professor, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX.
M.K.B. is Board of Directors NCS/treasurer and connected with Stock Options Cerebrotech/Neuroptics and receives honorarium from Bard. S.L. is a consultant in Stryker NV/SPS and Sarah Livesay LLC. D.M.O. is Editor of the Journal of Neuroscience Nursing.
The remaining authors declare no conflicts of interest.