Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is an autoimmune component of Graves' disease for which no currently available medical therapy provides reliable and safe benefit. Based on insights generated experimentally over the past several decades, the insulin-like growth factor–I receptor (IGF-IR) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of TAO. Furthermore, an IGF-IR inhibitor, teprotumumab, has emerged from 2 clinical trials as a promising treatment for active, moderate to severe TAO. This brief review intends to provide an overview of the rationale underlying the development of teprotumumab for this disease. It is possible that teprotumumab will soon take its place in our therapeutic armamentarium for active TAO.