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Difficulties in Daily Life Reported by Patients With Homonymous Visual Field Defects

de Haan, Gera A. MSc; Heutink, Joost PhD; Melis-Dankers, Bart J. M. PhD; Brouwer, Wiebo H. PhD; Tucha, Oliver PhD


In the article that appeared on page 259 of the September 2015 issue of the Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology, a sentence within the Results section listed the wrong reference. The corrected sentence and reference are below.

Linking the reported difficulties to the ICF: Classifying the reported difficulties according to the ICF linking rules (21) resulted in 268 concepts for the open-ended question and 248 concepts for the standardized questionnaires.

Additionally, the following sentence within the Results section had a link to the incorrect Supplemental Digital Content table. The corrected link is below.

During the process of linking these concepts, in 4 of 516 concepts, no unanimous decision was reached, and the fourth evaluator was involved in the decision process, resulting in agreement (see Supplemental Digital Content, Table E4,

Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology. 36(3):e15, September 2016.

doi: 10.1097/WNO.0000000000000244
Original Contribution

Background: Homonymous visual field defects (HVFD) are common after postchiasmatic acquired brain injury and may have a significant impact on independent living and participation in society. Vision-related difficulties experienced in daily life are usually assessed using questionnaires. The current study 1) links the content of 3 of these questionnaires to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and 2) provides analyses of vision-related difficulties reported by patients with HVFD and minimal comorbidities.

Methods: Fifty-four patients with homonymous hemianopia or quadrantanopia were asked about difficulties experienced in daily life because of their HVFD. This was performed during a structured interview including 3 standardized questionnaires: National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire, Independent Mobility Questionnaire, and Cerebral Visual Disorders Questionnaire. The reported difficulties were linked to the ICF according to the ICF linking rules. Main outcome measures were presence or absence of experienced difficulties.

Results: The ICF linking procedure resulted in a classification table that can be used in future studies of vision-related difficulties. Besides well-known difficulties related to reading, orientation, and mobility, a high proportion of patients with HVFD reported problems that previously have not been documented in the literature, such as impaired light sensitivity, color vision, and perception of depth.

Conclusions: A systematic inventory of difficulties experienced in daily life by patients with HVFD was performed using the ICF. These findings have implications for future study, assessment and rehabilitation of patients with HVFD.

Supplemental Digital Content is Available in the Text.

Department of Clinical and Developmental Neuropsychology (GAdH, JH, WHB, OT), University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; Department of Rehabilitation & Advice (GAdH, JH, BJMM-D), Royal Dutch Visio, Centre of Expertise for Blind and Partially Sighted People, Haren, the Netherlands; and Department of Neurology (WHB), University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Address correspondence to Gera A. de Haan, MSc, Department of Neuropsychology, University of Groningen, Grote Kruisstraat 1/2, 9712 TS Groningen, the Netherlands; E-mail:

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the full text and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Web site (

© 2015 by North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society