failures, including clinical handoff
or clinical handover
errors, contribute to 80% of all serious preventable adverse events each year. The N-PAS, N = Nurse, P = Patient Summary, A = Action Plan, and S = Synthesis, is a flexible standardized clinical handoff
tool for nurses.
The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion of N-PAS core components present in real-world patient handoffs.
A mixed-methods design was used to analyze secondary data. Patient handoffs (n = 138) were transcribed into statements and then independently coded by 2 research assistants.
Of all handoff
statements, 63.2% were coded as Patient Summary and 13.6% were coded as Action Plan, whereas Synthesis was not coded in any handoffs. Three new Patient Summary elements and 1 new Action Plan element were identified.
Patient Summary and Action Plan are critical data reported during clinical handoff
. A handoff
synthesis is a critical step to include in handoff