University of Rochester School of Nursing, Rochester, New York (Dr Xue); Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, US Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, District of Columbia (Dr Chappel); Claremont Graduate University, Claremont, California (Dr Freund); Center for Health Outcomes and Policy Research, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (Dr Aiken); and Surgical Health Outcomes and Research Enterprise (SHORE), Departments of Surgery and Preventive Medicine and Community Health, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (Dr Noyes).
Correspondence: Ying Xue, DNSc, RN, University of Rochester School of Nursing, 601 Elmwood Ave, Box SON, Rochester, NY 14642 ([email protected]).
This study was supported by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation—Interdisciplinary Nursing Quality Research Initiative #62576 (Drs Xue and Freund). Dr Aiken received funding from American Staffing Association Foundation. Dr Katia received funding 1UL1 RR024160-01 from the National Center for Research Resources.
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
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Accepted for publication: October 16, 2014
Published ahead of print: December 4, 2014