This review aims to summarize the currently available human papillomavirus (HPV) testing methods for precancerous cervical intraepithelial lesions.
Materials and Methods
A literature search of PubMed using key words “high-risk HPV, precancerous cervical intraepithelial lesions, FDA-approved HPV tests, p16 IHC, Ki 67 IHC, fluorescent in situ hybridization for HPV, Pap smear, HPV vaccines, HPV tests using self-collected samples, and next-generation sequencing” was performed between January 1 and June 14, 2019. The package inserts of the Food and Drug Administration–approved HPV tests were obtained from the companies' Web sites.
Multiple morphology-based, immunohistochemical staining and nucleic acid HPV tests were reviewed, including the material required, methodologies, result interpretations, as well as their advantages, limitations, and futures. The structure of HPV and its natural history of infection and transmission were touched on as well for a better understanding of these testing methods.
Human papillomavirus tests are a critical component for cervical cancer screening, and understanding of these tests helps test results interpretation and patients' triage.