The aim of the study was to analyze the clinical features of women found to have vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VaIN), the treatment modalities that they were offered, and clinical outcomes after treatment and follow-up.
Materials and Methods
This is a retrospective review of all cases of biopsy-proven or treated VaIN occurring for a 15-year period at Southend University Hospital, United Kingdom.
Eighty-eight cases of VaIN were identified. The age range was from 24 to 76 years, and 39% of cases were low grade (VaIN 1) and 60% high grade (VaIN 2 and 3). Sixty-five percent of patients had either already undergone or would go on to have treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Of those with low-grade disease, 86% were managed conservatively with a 97% success rate. Similarly, with high-grade disease, 77% were managed with laser treatment with a success rate of 76% for primary treatment. Of the 6 cases of high-grade disease treated conservatively, 50% subsequently needed active treatment. There was 1 case of progression to vaginal cancer (1.3%).
Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia remains an uncommon premalignant condition. It can affect women of all ages and is commoner in those who are immunosuppressed. Observation of low-grade disease is safe and the abnormality often resolves spontaneously. For persistent disease or higher-grade abnormalities, there are many treatment options but laser vaporization is the most commonly used. However, because of the nature of VaIN, recurrence is common even after treatment and further management can be challenging. The overall rate of malignant progression is small but protracted follow-up may be necessary.