To estimate the magnitude of association between anal infection with high-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) types and severity of biopsy-confirmed histopathological anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) among a clinic-based sample of HIV-infected adults in Puerto Rico.
This cross-sectional study analyzed data from medical records of adult patients who visited a specialized anal neoplasia clinic from June 2015 to December 2017 (n = 239); sociodemographics, behavioral risk factors, medical history, clinical data, and pathology reports were collected. The magnitude of association between anal HR-HPV and severity of anal SIL, adjusted for potential confounders, was assessed using a multinomial logistic model.
A 78.7% of patients had anal HR-HPV infection, 43.9% had histopathological low-grade SIL (LSIL), and 37.7% had histopathological high-grade SIL (HSIL). The prevalence of anal HR-HPV infection was 63.6% among patients with no anal SIL, 70.5% for those with LSIL and 95.6% for those with HSIL. After adjusting for different predictors, patients with anal HR-HPV infection were more likely to have HSIL (odds ratio, 11.0; 95% confidence interval, 3.2-37.2) than those without anal HR-HPV infection, whereas no significant excess was observed for LSIL (odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-3.1).
This study showed a strong association between anal HR-HPV infection and HSIL. Likewise, a high prevalence of anal HR-HPV infection and presence of anal SIL was observed among HIV-infected individuals. Our result highlights the importance of screening for anal HR-HPV infection and anal SIL and optimizing strategies for HPV vaccination in HIV-infected individuals.