The aim of the study was to provide national estimates of Pap test receipt, by birthplace, and percent of lifetime in the United States (US).
Materials and Methods
Pooled nationally representative data (2005, 2008, 2013, 2015) from the National Health Interview Survey were used to examine differences in Pap test receipt among adult US women by birthplace and percent of lifetime in the US. Descriptive estimates were age-adjusted. Regression models were adjusted for selected sociodemographic and healthcare access and utilization factors and presented as predicted margins.
Foreign-born women 18 years and older were more than twice as likely to have never received a Pap test compared with US-born women (18.6% vs 6.8%). Regression models showed that foreign-born women from Mexico (9.8%), South America (12.6%), Caribbean (14.6%), Southeast Asia (13.7%), Central Asia (20.4%), South Asia (22.9%), Middle East (25.0%), Africa (27.8%), Europe (16.4%), and Former Soviet Union (28.2%) were more likely to be unscreened compared with US-born women (7.6%). Foreign-born women who spent less than 25% of their life in the US had higher prevalence of never having a Pap test (20%) compared with foreign-born who spent more than 25% of their life in the US (12.7%).
Using national survey, we found that where a woman is born and the percent of her lifetime spent residing in the US do impact whether she gets screened at least once in her lifetime.
These findings may inform cervical cancer screening efforts targeting foreign-born women.