The issue of the equivalence of the various classes of antihypertensive agents, and of various agents within a given class, has been a long debated one, heralded in the 1970s by the incautious suspicion of a role played by reserpine in breast cancer , and continuing in the 1990s with the campaign against calcium antagonists as responsible for coronary events, bleeding, and cancer [138,139]. After the acquittal of calcium antagonists, even by their prosecutors, attention has been recently focused by different groups of investigators on a possible inferiority of β-blockers and diuretics as well as on the possible inferiority of ACE inhibitors for stroke prevention and of angiotensin receptor antagonists for coronary disease prevention. Obviously, paying careful attention to possible adverse effects or limitations of both new and old drugs is an obligation of physicians and clinical epidemiologists and must be taken seriously by members of guidelines committees. On the contrary, unfounded suspicion should not be used to deprive patients of the benefits of drugs.
The evidence upon which β-blockers have been questioned as first choice antihypertensive drugs  and actually downgraded in the British recommendations  was discussed in the 2007 European guidelines. New arguments on the place of β-blockers in antihypertensive therapy have been added since then [142–144]. In a meta-analysis of nine of 22 randomized controlled trials of β-blockers , a significant inverse correlation has been reported between the heart rate achieved by β-blocker therapy and cardiovascular outcomes (i.e., the lower the achieved heart rate, the higher the incidence of outcomes), including myocardial infarction and heart failure, known to be favorably influenced by β-blockade [146,147]. On the contrary, a recent meta-analysis of 147 randomized trials (the largest meta-analysis so far available) reports only a slight inferiority of β-blockers in preventing stroke (17% reduction rather than 29% reduction with other agents), but a similar effect as other agents on preventing coronary events and heart failure, and a higher efficacy than other drugs in patients with a recent coronary event . Furthermore, the recent publication of a 20-year follow-up of the UKPDS trial  comparing atenolol and captopril in diabetes has found the incidence of cardiovascular outcomes to be similar in patients on the β-blocker or the ACE inhibitor, with a reduction in all-cause mortality favoring the β-blocker. This is consistent with retrospective observational data of large numbers of patients on different antihypertensive treatment regimens for longer periods than in randomized trials, showing that the incidence of cardiovascular outcomes was not higher on atenolol-based treatment than on other antihypertensive agents .
Finally, no systematic analysis has been made of the possible role of a smaller BP reduction by β-blocker-based treatment in those trials in which β-blockers appeared to have a smaller effect on stroke. For instance, interpolation of ASCOT data on stroke in the meta-regression analysis of the Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration  makes it clear that the odd ratio falls very close to the place expected because of the 2.7 mmHg difference in SBP between β-blocker/diuretic and calcium antagonist/ACE inhibitor treatments . On the whole, however, β-blockers do not appear to be systematically inferior to other antihypertensive agents in their ability to reduce BP. A recent pooling analysis from more than 40 000 hypertensive patients under different monotherapies has shown no inferiority (and, possibly, a numerical superiority) of β-blocker monotherapy  in lowering brachial BP. However, studies like CAFÉ  suggest that, for the same brachial SBP, central SBP may be higher with β-blockers than with other antihypertensive agents because of a greater wave reflection due to bradycardia and/or peripheral vasoconstriction. This interesting observation deserves to be confirmed, although its real impact on antihypertensive management may be small because the difference between peripheral and central BPs is known to become attenuated at an older age [155,156], when hypertension and antihypertensive treatment are most common.
There is no doubt that β-blockers as well as diuretics (especially when combined together) have adverse metabolic effects and facilitate new-onset diabetes [157,158] in predisposed patients such as those with the metabolic syndrome or impaired glucose tolerance [55,159,160]. The importance of this phenomenon, however, may have been exaggerated by the way results of most prospective studies and trials have been analyzed; that is, by limiting analyses of changes in plasma glucose or in antidiabetic prescriptions to patients initially free of diabetes or with a blood glucose below 7.0 mmol/l (126 mg/dl). Indeed, a recent analysis of data from the 3.8-year long ELSA trial has shown that new diagnoses of diabetes at the end of this study in patients without diabetes at baseline are accompanied by a number of cases in which diagnosis of diabetes at baseline was no longer confirmed at the end of the study. However, the overall balance remains positive for new-onset diabetes . Furthermore, it is still unclear whether drug-induced diabetes carries the same negative prognosis as naturally occurring diabetes, with some authors emphasizing studies showing that trial patients with new-onset diabetes do not have a higher incidence of cardiovascular outcomes during the trial and several years thereafter [133,161], whereas others underline the opposite conclusions in other studies [143,162–164].
It is also true that, when compared with other agents in trials using subclinical organ damage as an endpoint, β-blockers have been shown to be less powerful than ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor antagonists, and calcium antagonists in reducing an increased left ventricular mass , carotid IMT thickening , aortic stiffness , and increased small artery wall-to-lumen ratio [167–169], and this may be supposed to result in less cardiovascular protection in the long run. When discussing β-blockers, however, it should not be ignored that they are not a homogeneous class, and that vasodilating β-blockers, such as celiprolol, carvedilol, and nebivolol, appear not to share some of the negative properties described for other compounds. For instance, celiprolol lowers aortic stiffness and central pulse pressure , whereas atenolol does not . Nebivolol, at doses producing the same BP reduction, lowers heart rate significantly less than atenolol , and because of the lesser bradycardia combined with peripheral vasodilatation, it has better effects on central BP than atenolol . In the GEMINI study , carvedilol had less adverse effects on glycosylated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, and triglycerides than metoprolol; and nebivolol, at variance from metoprolol, has been found to improve insulin sensitivity  and to have the same metabolic effects as an ACE inhibitor . Both carvedilol and nebivolol have been used in outcome trials in chronic heart failure (admittedly not in hypertension) and found capable of reducing the primary endpoint of mortality and hospitalization : in COMET, carvedilol treatment was accompanied by less new-onset diabetes than metoprolol , and in the SENIORS trial, new-onset diabetes had the same incidence on nebivolol or placebo . When compared with metoprolol, carvedilol resulted in significantly less cases of microalbuminuria and progression to proteinuria in hypertensive diabetic patients , and nebivolol has recently been shown to improve coronary flow reserve and left ventricular filling pressure in the hypertensive heart . Whether the protective cardiovascular action shown by carvedilol and nebivolol in patients with heart failure is also displayed in hypertension remains to be determined in a controlled trial.
A prominent role for thiazide-like diuretics in antihypertensive therapy, such as that given to these compounds in the JNC-7 report , is an object of continuing debate [143,161]. The evidence that a BP lowering induced by diuretics can reduce all types of cardiovascular events is robust , but it cannot be denied that most of the trials, the meta-analysis of which has been the basis for raising doubts on β-blockers, have also used thiazides. This makes it difficult to distinguish the separate role of these two drug classes. Likewise, the diabetogenic role of β-blockers and diuretics is difficult to discriminate, and when it has been dissociated diuretics appear worse than β-blockers . Diuretics have rarely been studied in depth for their capacity to regress organ damage, and when tested have often been found inferior to calcium antagonists or ACE inhibitors [165,180,181]. Furthermore, all large studies that have explored the tolerability of various classes of antihypertensive agents on persistence to therapy have found diuretics to be, together with β-blockers, the least tolerated compounds  or those accompanied by the least persistence on treatment [182,183]. Finally, a recent meta-analysis has reported outcome benefit for low-dose but not for high-dose diuretics . In addition, the results of the ACCOMPLISH trial (to be discussed in the preferred drug combinations section) have raised doubts as to whether thiazides are always the best protective component of combination therapy .
The concept that ACE inhibitors may be somewhat inferior to other antihypertensive agents in preventing stroke has repeatedly been raised on the basis of some meta-analyses [148,186] and meta-regression analyses . A pathophysiological hypothesis to support the claim that ACE inhibitors may be inferior to angiotensin receptor antagonists in preventing stroke has also been elaborated . On the contrary, it has been suggested that angiotensin receptor antagonists would be inferior to ACE inhibitors in preventing myocardial infarction [189,190].
All these concepts, as well as their pathophysiological interpretations, have been undermined by the results of the very large ONTARGET, directly comparing cardiovascular outcomes under treatment with an ACE inhibitor (ramipril) or an angiotensin receptor antagonist (telmisartan) . ONTARGET has shown telmisartan not to be statistically inferior to ramipril as far as the incidence of a composite endpoint including major cardiac outcomes are concerned. A similar incidence of strokes was also observed on both treatments. Recent meta-analyses including older and more recent trials confirm the conclusion that ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists have the same preventive effect on myocardial infarction [192,193].
The absolute benefit induced by the relatively small BP reduction produced by either treatment is more difficult to calculate, because ONTARGET was deliberately conducted in high-risk patients and for obvious ethical reasons could not include a placebo comparison arm. Therefore, it is difficult to decide whether the benefit has to be gauged from historical comparison with the placebo arm of the HOPE trial , carried out several years earlier, or with the placebo arm of the simultaneously run TRANSCEND, on patients intolerant to ACE inhibitors . The patients of TRANSCEND treated with placebo had a slightly lower incidence of cardiovascular events than placebo-treated patients in HOPE, either because higher prevalence of concomitant therapies than in HOPE (but similar to that in ONTARGET) or because of a higher proportion of women.
Calcium antagonists have been cleared from the suspicion of causing a relative excess of coronary events by the same authors who had raised the suspicion . On the contrary, some recent meta-analyses [148,186,187,196] suggest that these agents may have some additional advantage in preventing stroke, although it is not clear whether this can be ascribed to a specific protective effect or to a slightly better BP control, often achieved in the calcium-antagonist-treated patients. It is still unclear whether calcium antagonists are less effective in protecting against new-onset heart failure, as is apparent in several studies and large meta-analyses [148,186]. The recent meta-analysis by Law et al. , however, shows that trials in which a BP difference was sought between an antihypertensive agent and control, the efficacy of calcium antagonists in preventing heart failure was only slightly lower than that of other antihypertensive agents (19 versus 24%). The question revolves around how much of this apparent inferiority of calcium antagonists is a real limitation in their cardiovascular protection, the result of a difficulty in diagnosing a clinically relevant but soft outcome such as an incipient heart failure, or a consequence of trial designs preventing the use of diuretics and ACE inhibitors (agents essential in heart failure therapy) in patients randomized to calcium antagonists. It is relevant that in trials in which a calcium antagonist was always or commonly administered in combination with a diuretic (FEVER ) or an ACE inhibitor (ASCOT ), there was no statistically significant excess of heart failure in the calcium antagonist arm. Incipient heart failure has also been found to be markedly reduced (−39%) in hypertensive patients on calcium antagonist treatment compared with those on placebo in the ACTION trial [96,198–200].
The new drug that has substantially increased its database in the last 2 years is aliskiren, a direct inhibitor of renin at the site of its activation, which is now available for treating patients both in United States and Europe. The new data on aliskiren can be summarized as follows. First, although the specific advantages of interfering with the activation of renin are not yet clear [201,202], aliskiren has been shown to be effective in lowering SBP and DBP in hypertensive patients when given in monotherapy at a single daily dose. Second, the drug is effective also in combination with a thiazide diuretic, a calcium antagonist and an ACE inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor antagonist [203–205]. Third, data have recently emerged on the ability of aliskiren to protect against subclinical organ damage when combined with an angiotensin receptor antagonist. In one study in diabetic hypertensive patients with proteinuria, this drug combination led to a greater reduction in urinary protein excretion than the administration of an angiotensin receptor antagonist alone , but in another study on hypertensive patients with LVH, the combination did not cause a LVM reduction significantly greater than that obtained by administration of an angiotensin receptor antagonist alone . In a third study in heart failure patients, this combination was significantly superior to angiotensin receptor antagonist administration in causing a reduction in the plasma concentration of brain natriuretic peptide , a recognized prognostic marker for heart failure . It remains to be seen whether greater effects on organ damage may also be obtained by increasing the dose of traditional blockers of the renin–angiotensin system. The completion of ongoing hard endpoints trials with aliskiren in mono and combination therapies is expected with interest. Meanwhile the available evidence justifies its use in hypertension, particularly in combination with other agents. This is also supported by the favorable tolerance profile of aliskiren. The main side-effect appears to be an increased incidence of diarrhea, but only at doses higher than the recommended dose .
New antihypertensive agents that are currently under investigation include nitric oxide donors, vasopressin antagonists, neutral endopeptidase inhibitors, AT2 angiotensin receptor agonists, and antagonists of endothelin receptors. Although their mechanisms of action hold promise of BP-lowering effectiveness and possibly of specific organ protection, their investigational phase is still far away from use in the clinical setting, and thus assessment of their pros and cons compared with current drug options is impossible. An exception is represented by endothelin receptor antagonists, because a compound of this class that selectively blocks ETA receptors, darusentan, has been recently tested in patients defined as resistant, because of lack of BP control on treatment with at least three drugs, including a diuretic. Administration of darusentan on the top of the existing treatment significantly reduced office and 24 h mean BP over a 14-week period, with a doubling of the percentage of patients achieving BP control and only a moderate increase in the rate of side-effects (mainly edema and sodium retention) compared with placebo . These results are potentially important because resistant hypertension is not a phenomenon of marginal proportion, the number of patients unable to achieve BP control despite multiple drug treatment being around 15–20% .
The 2007 European guidelines avoided ranking antihypertensive agents in order of choice. Ranking started with the first Joint National Committee report  and the 1978 WHO report , and was justified by the fact that the few available agents widely differed in tolerability and some of them could only be used in combination. With the development of several well tolerated classes of antihypertensive agents, the habit of ranking has continued for good reasons (such as the need to wait for the evidence of benefit by new agents) but also for less good reasons, such as the interest of pharmaceutical companies in having their drugs classified as ‘first choice’, or the pleasure of investigators to see their studies capable of awarding ‘first rank’ to a drug .
However, once it is agreed that (1) the major mechanism of the benefits of antihypertensive therapy is BP lowering per se, (2) the effects on cause-specific outcomes of the various agents are similar or differ by a minor degree, (3) the type of outcome to occur in a given patient is unpredictable, and (4) all classes of antihypertensive agents have their pros and cons (well summarized in Tables 7 and 8 of the 2007 ESH/ESC guidelines), it is obvious that any all-purpose ranking of drugs for general antihypertensive usage is unnecessary and probably deceiving . It is on the basis of this striving for ranking that at different times investigators have been warning the media that millions of people may be dying every year because of the use of calcium antagonists, the use of β-blockers, or the use of angiotensin receptor antagonists. These campaigns cause lay people to wonder whether antihypertensive therapy is beneficial or dangerous. This behavior should be discouraged. Even reasons based on costs, often used to justify ranking, have recently been weakened by the advent of generic compounds within every class of antihypertensive agents.
The 2007 ESH/ESC guidelines underline that, no matter which drug is employed, monotherapy can effectively reduce BP in only a limited number of hypertensive patients, most of whom require the combination of at least two drugs to achieve BP control  (Box 6). A recent meta-analysis of 42 studies has shown that combining two agents from any two classes of antihypertensive drugs increases the BP reduction much more than doubling the dose of one agent . Admittedly, the advantage of combination therapy over monotherapy may partly be due to the fact that any agent used in monotherapy is ineffective or scarcely effective in a number of patients, so that its combination with an agent effective in these patients must induce a greater response than doubling the dose of an ineffective agent. However, although it is possible that the use of two drugs together implies the administration of a futile one, searching for the most effective monotherapy in every given patient is painstaking, and may discourage compliance (although pharmacogenetics may in future provide predictive clues). Furthermore, there are physiological and pharmacological synergies that justify the greater effectiveness of drug combinations, and this strategy appears to be that on which the selection of antihypertensive medication may be increasingly based. In a public health perspective, it seems desirable to foresee a substantial increase in the use of combination treatment in clinical practice from the relatively low prevalence of today . This could help attain the goal of substantially improving BP control in the hypertensive population from its present low rate worldwide .
Some of the large-scale trials published in the last 2 years importantly expanded information on the advantages and disadvantages of several two-drug combinations in hypertension. The new evidence available and its implications for guidelines recommendations are discussed below.
The combination of an ACE inhibitor, perindopril, and the diuretic indapamide had already been shown in the PROGRESS study to have a greater BP-lowering effect than the ACE inhibitor alone and, in parallel, a much greater preventive effect on recurrent stroke . In ADVANCE , the same combination of indapamide and perindopril given to patients with type 2 diabetes (on top of continuation of preexisting therapy) for more than 4 years was followed by a significantly greater antihypertensive effect than administration of placebo (SBP and DBP difference −5.6 and −2.2 mmHg, respectively). This was associated with a reduced incidence (−9%) of diabetes-related complications (composite endpoint of macrovascular and microvascular outcomes). In addition, the perindopril–indapamide combination was well tolerated with an overall rate of adverse effects only slightly greater than that observed in the placebo group, and a high number of patients (>80%) remaining on active drug treatment throughout the trial. Similarly, in the large majority of the very elderly patient of HYVET , the administration of the indapamide–perindopril combination resulted in a greater BP reduction as well as a lower rate of cardiovascular outcomes and serious side-effects compared with placebo.
A combination of an ACE inhibitor and a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist was the most widely used combination therapy in Syst-Eur and Syst-China [81,82], as well as in the HOT study  in order to achieve lower BP goals. INVEST used the combination of a nondihydropyridine calcium antagonist, verapamil, and the ACE inhibitor trandolapril with comparable beneficial effects as the combination of a β-blocker and a diuretic . The combination amlodipine–perindopril was widely used in the ASCOT study, being more effective in lowering BP and cardiovascular events than the combination of a β-blocker with a thiazide .
An angiotensin receptor antagonist has been frequently combined with a diuretic in a number of trials, such as LIFE  and SCOPE [83,220], which have documented the protective effects of this treatment strategy. Until now, no outcome study has been conducted using the combination of an angiotensin receptor antagonist with a calcium antagonist. An exception is the RENAAL trial, in which the benefit of losartan (versus placebo) in delaying progression to end-stage renal disease was seen on the top of preexisting antihypertensive therapy frequently including calcium antagonists . Furthermore, a large body of evidence exists that combining an angiotensin receptor antagonist with a calcium antagonist or a diuretic provides an effective reduction of BP and a high rate of BP control in a variety of hypertension categories, has a tolerability profile even more favorable than that seen when an ACE inhibitor is used instead (because cough and angioedema are much less frequently seen) and protects against subclinical organ damage [221–223]. Evidence has grown in particular on the combination of an angiotensin receptor antagonist with a calcium antagonist (usually amlodipine), which has been proved capable of most effectively reducing even severe hypertension [223,224].
Despite the fact that small pharmacologic studies have raised doubts on the synergistic effects of adding a diuretic to a calcium antagonist, this combination was included in the recent meta-analysis by Wald et al.  without detracting from the demonstration of a greater BP-lowering effect of combining calcium antagonists with other drugs compared with doubling the calcium antagonist dose in monotherapy. Even more importantly, the association of a calcium antagonist with a diuretic has been used in the FEVER, ELSA, and VALUE trials [75,166,225] with greater benefits. No outcome trial has explored the combination of a calcium antagonist with a β-blocker, but this has been the second used association in the HOT study .
Nonetheless, the results of ONTARGET do not support large-scale use of this combination of drugs in hypertension and suggest that its use in proteinuric renal patients should be studied further and more critically. A recent meta-analysis of 49 studies, albeit small and mostly short term, has confirmed that the combination of the two blockers of the renin–angiotensin system has significantly greater antiproteinuric effect than either component . However, although reduction of proteinuria is often considered to lead to and/or reflect renoprotection (i.e., delayed occurrence of end-stage renal disease) , proteinuria reduction, particularly in short-term studies, should not be taken as necessarily equivalent to renal function preservation and prevention of cardiovascular outcomes. An example of this are some findings of the ONTARGET study  already discussed.
In this context, it should be remembered that the results of the only study (the COOPERATE study) that reported a superior protective effect of double blockade of the renin–angiotensin system on renal outcomes  have been questioned [230,231]. Also, the widely quoted favorable results of concomitant ACE inhibitor and angiotensin receptor antagonist administration reported in trials on patients with left ventricular dysfunction or heart failure should be considered cautiously, as the benefits were not seen in all trials (absent in VALIANT ), or they were small (Val-HeFT ) or evident only if hospitalization was added to mortality (CHARM ). Finally, in all these trials, the combination markedly increased the incidence of side-effects such as hyperkalemia and an elevation in serum creatinine.
Guidelines have long favored the use of combination of two antihypertensive drugs at fixed doses in a single tablet, because reducing the number of pills that have to be taken daily has been shown to improve compliance , which is low in hypertension. Use of fixed dose combinations of two drugs can directly follow initial monotherapy when addition of a second drug is required to control BP, or be the first treatment step when a high cardiovascular risk makes early BP control desirable. This approach is now facilitated by the availability of different fixed dose combinations of the same two drugs, which minimizes one of its inconveniences, that is, the inability to only increase the dose of one drug but not that of the other.
New and old evidence strongly supports combination treatment as the most effective strategy to control BP, and therefore recommends treatment strategies largely based on the addition of a drug from another class to the initially prescribed agent, whenever BP control is not achieved, unless the starting drug needs to be changed because of side-effects or the absence of any BP reduction. It suggests that the combination of two antihypertensive drugs may offer advantages also as first step treatment, particularly in patients at high cardiovascular risk, in whom early BP control may be desirable. It favors, whenever possible, the use of fixed dose combinations of two drugs in a single tablet because of the advantage brought about by simplification of the treatment regimen. Finally, it warns against the use of a combination of an ACE inhibitor and an angiotensin receptor antagonist at least in very high cardiovascular risk patients such as those in ONTARGET. It remains to be established whether the latter combination may have a beneficial role in patients with chronic renal disease and proteinuria, or even in some lower risk hypertensives.
Because the 2007 European guidelines did not include the ACE inhibitor–angiotensin receptor antagonist combination between the preferred combinations, the scheme they presented does not appear to require substantial modification at present. It should be underlined, however, that outcome reduction has been documented in trials using the following combinations: ACE inhibitor and diuretic, angiotensin receptor antagonist and diuretic, calcium antagonist and diuretic, and ACE inhibitor and calcium antagonist. Successful trials have also used β-blocker and diuretic in association, but this is the combination more easily inducing new diabetes in predisposed patients .
Finally, it is important to remember that no less than 15–20% of the patients need more than two antihypertensive drugs to achieve an effective BP reduction. The combination of a blocker of the renin–angiotensin system, a calcium antagonist and a thiazide diuretic may be a rational three-drug combination, although other drugs, such as a β-blocker or an α-blocker, may be included in a multiple approach, depending on the clinical circumstances.
Now this gap in the evidence has been filled with the much expected publication of the results of the HYVET . In HYVET, 3845 patients aged 80 years or more in whom entry SBP was 160 mmHg or more (average 173 mmHg) were randomized to receive either placebo or active treatment, consisting of indapamide (1.5 mg daily) and the eventual addition of the ACE inhibitor perindopril (2 and 4 mg daily) with the target to attain a SBP value below 150 mmHg. Drug administration (with the indapamide–perindopril combination given in about three-quarters of the patients) reduced BP to a value much lower than placebo, that is, 144/78 versus 161/84 mmHg. This was accompanied by clear-cut beneficial effects, and, according to advice from the safety board, the trial was stopped after an average treatment duration of less than 2 years. The beneficial effects consisted of a 30% reduction in stroke (just short of statistical significance) and statistically significant reductions in congestive heart failure (64%), major cardiovascular events, and all-cause death (21%). These results indicate that even in the very elderly stratum of the population, antihypertensive treatment does not only prevent cardiovascular morbid events but also translates into prolongation of life.
In conclusion, an evidence-based general recommendation can now be given to prescribe antihypertensive treatment to octogenarians with SBP above 160 mmHg with the target to lower it below 150 mmHg, but because of differences in the general health of very elderly patients, the decision to treat should be taken on an individual basis, and BP lowering should be in any case gradual and carefully monitored by the doctor.
Since the publication of the 2007 ESH-ESC guidelines, some additional useful information on the treatment of hypertension in the elderly has been added. A large prospective meta-analysis of major antihypertensive therapy trials has been published, showing that patients aged less or more than 65 years achieve the same proportional benefit from a given lowering of BP and there is no hint that different classes of antihypertensive drugs are more efficacious in reducing outcomes in younger or older patients . The latter information confirms what was already pointed out in the 2007 ESH/ESC guidelines, that in the elderly drug treatment can be initiated with thiazide diuretics, calcium antagonists, angiotensin receptor antagonists, ACE inhibitors, and β-blockers, which is in line with general guidelines. The HYVET adds further evidence to the role of diuretics and ACE inhibitors. For isolated systolic hypertension of the elderly, there are three trials [78,81,82] that have used a diuretic  and a calcium antagonist [81,82], respectively, as first-line treatment.
A reassessment of recommendations on treatment of the elderly with hypertension is given in Box 7.
As to antihypertensive drugs to be preferred in diabetes, the 2007 ESH/ESC guidelines based their recommendation to use any agent capable of effectively lowering BP on the evidence of a large meta-analysis showing substantial equivalence of antihypertensive agents belonging to various classes in preventing cardiovascular outcomes in diabetes . This recommendation was coupled to that of using combinations of drugs that include an agent blocking the renin–angiotensin system, because of the particular effectiveness of this type of agent on renal protein excretion and long-term preservation of renal function. The only large study exclusively devoted to diabetics completed after the 2007 guidelines, the ADVANCE trial , used the combination of a diuretic, indapamide, and an ACE inhibitor, perindopril, often on top of preexisting antihypertensive agents to produce some further BP decrease associated with a significant albeit modest reduction (9%) in the combined endpoint of macrovascular and microvascular complications, a significant 14% reduction of all cause mortality, and a significant 21% reduction of renal outcomes, such as proteinuria, microalbuminuria, doubling of serum creatinine, dialysis and renal transplantation. ACCOMPLISH, though not entirely devoted to diabetes, included 60% of diabetic patients among the more than 11 000 individuals enrolled. The study compared the use of an ACE inhibitor, benazepril, in association with either the calcium antagonist amlodipine or the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide and reported superiority of the ACE inhibitor–calcium antagonist combination .
Although diabetic-dependent microvascular complications are all related to BP within a wide range of values , antihypertensive treatment appears to affect them in a different fashion. BP reduction has a pronounced protective effect on renal complications (see Renal disease section). However, it does not appear to substantially affect neuropathy , whereas data on the ability of BP-lowering strategies to protect against eye complications are not consistent. Several years ago, the UKPDS study  reported a reduced incidence of various eye lesions (and of eye interventions) in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients under tight versus those under standard BP control, strengthening the favorable conclusion drawn from previous smaller or less controlled studies [86,247,248]. However, no significant beneficial effects of BP reduction by an ACE inhibitor–diuretic combination on eye complications has recently been reported in the hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients of ADVANCE [88,249], and substantially negative data have also resulted from the DIRECT trial in normotensive type 1 diabetic patients in whom BP was reduced by an angiotensin receptor antagonist . Interestingly, the inconsistency between older and more recent studies extends to the effect of tight blood glucose control on eye complications, with favorable reports from UKPDS  and negative ones from ADVANCE . Whether a protective effect of BP and glucose control on diabetic retinopathy may only be observed in early phases of the disease and on appearance rather than progression of retinopathy remains to be tested by specific trials.
As mentioned in previous sections, in the last 2 years, further evidence has accumulated in favor of targeting reduction of microalbuminuria and proteinuria, mostly through blockers of the renin–angiotensin system, in order to reduce end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular events. A post hoc analysis of RENAAL data indicates that the incidence of end-stage renal disease showed an independent relationship with SBP and albuminuria reduction, suggesting that improving renal outcomes in patients with diabetic nephropathy may require a dual strategy, targeting both BP and albuminuria . Also, in the type 2 diabetic patients of ADVANCE, urinary protein excretion (both baseline and on-treatment values) has been reported to be closely correlated with the primary outcome of the study (macrovascular and microvascular events) . On the contrary, ONTARGET has recently reported that the combination of full doses of the ACE inhibitor ramipril and the angiotensin receptor antagonist, telmisartan, though reducing BP a few mmHg more than therapy with either ramipril or telmisartan and influencing progress of proteinuria to a slightly but significantly greater extent, was accompanied by a greater incidence of renal outcomes (mostly acute dialysis and doubling of serum creatinine) and by no further reduction of cardiovascular outcomes [53,191]. As mentioned in a previous section, only a minority (about 4%) of ONTARGET patients had overt proteinuria at baseline, whereas worsening of renal outcomes mostly occurred in the patients without baseline microproteinuria or macroproteinuria, in whom changes in urinary protein excretion could only differ to a minor degree . Finally, the changes in urinary protein excretion were small and so the between-treatment differences in renal outcomes were quite infrequent (2.03, 2.21, and 2.49% with ramipril, telmisartan, and the combination, respectively). Therefore, ONTARGET patients can hardly be compared to the more severe nephropathy cohorts in whom the role of urinary protein excretion in predicting end-stage renal disease was mostly investigated. When the effects of telmisartan versus placebo on renal outcomes were studied in the TRANSCEND trial , no significant differences were found as far as rate of GFR decline and end-stage renal disease is concerned . No data on renal outcomes are available from PROFESS , also comparing telmisartan with placebo.
It has been pointed out that the results of the PROGRESS trial, though clearly showing the benefits of lowering BP in patients with previous cerebrovascular events , cannot be taken to support a recommendation to initiate BP-lowering treatment in cardiovascular patients with BP in the high normal range, as in this trial the benefits of treatment were seen only in individuals with a baseline SBP of 140 mmHg and above, who often were on antihypertensive drugs already . Nor can the PROGRESS data be taken to support a SBP target below 130 mmHg, as the average SBP achieved on more intense treatment was 132 mmHg. However, the trial did show that an on-treatment SBP of 132 mmHg was better than an on-treatment SBP of 141 mmHg, that is, the average SBP of the placebo patients. In the other trial that first showed the benefits of BP lowering in patients with cerebrovascular disease, the PATS study , SBP values remained too high (143 and 149 mmHg in the active and placebo arms of the trial, respectively) to help clarify when to initiate treatment and to what level should BP be lowered in cerebrovascular patients. The same is the case for ACCESS . Finally, it cannot be denied that the matter has been further confused by the recent publication of the negative results of the PROFESS study . In this very large trial, in patients with previous stroke or transient ischemic attack, bringing SBP to 136 mmHg by adding telmisartan, rather than to 140 mmHg by adding placebo, was not accompanied by any significant reduction in recurrent strokes or major cardiovascular events. Various interpretations have been given for these unexpected negative findings: the small BP difference, in line with the evidence from the PROGRESS that the small BP difference in patients on monotherapy also failed to significantly reduce outcomes, the short duration of the follow-up (only 2.5 years), the frequent use of concomitant therapy (all patients were on antiplatelet agents and half of them were on lipid-lowering agents), the large dropout of patients during treatment, and the initiation of treatment very close to the qualifying cerebrovascular event. The fact remains that PROFESS has not really helped to clarify the remaining issues about antihypertensive treatment of the cerebrovascular patient.
A matter of continuing concern is the optimal BP management during the acute phase of stroke. The results of a small trial, the Controlling Hypertension and Hypotension Immediately Post-Stroke (CHHIPS), suggest a beneficial impact of administering lisinopril or atenolol in patients with acute stroke and a SBP more than 160 mmHg , but many of the current uncertainties remain to be clarified.
The 2007 ESH/ESC guidelines stressed the importance of better clarifying the role of high BP and BP-lowering treatment on the development of cognitive dysfunction and dementia but acknowledged that the available evidence was scanty and confusing . Little further evidence has been added in the past 2 years, except for the results of the HYVET on hypertensive octogenarians. All patients included in this trial were tested at baseline and yearly during treatment for cognitive function with the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), and patients whose score fell to less than 24 or by more than three points in any one year, were assessed with further tests in order to investigate possible incident dementia. The results showed only a nonsignificant trend for reduction of both cognitive decline and dementia with active treatment (hazard ratio 0.86 with 95% confidence intervals of 0.67–1.09) . Thus, the results of HYVET cannot help to clarify the matter, but the characteristics of the study have not been well suited for investigating dementia: indeed, at baseline, all individuals were rather healthy and with a good cognitive function and, in particular, the short duration of the follow-up (only 2 years) was unlikely to allow precise assessment of a slowly developing condition such as cognitive decline. The relationship between high BP, antihypertensive therapy, and cognitive loss is an important issue that deserves further studies, although it should be recognized these studies are difficult to design and conduct. In this context, it is promising, but by no means conclusive, that a meta-analysis that included HYVET and other placebo-controlled trials showed a small and statistically significant reduction in the incidence of dementia (−13%) in the actively treated patients .
It has already been extensively discussed whether the current recommendation to lower SBP below 130 mmHg in patients with concomitant coronary heart disease is well founded. It has been pointed out that some of the analyses of recent trials raising the possibility that low achieved BP values are associated with increased rather than decreased risk of cardiovascular outcomes [113,115] are post hoc with well known limitations. It has also been recognized that a reappraisal of all trials of antihypertensive agents in patients with coronary heart disease has provided contradictory evidence on the presence or absence of benefits of lowering SBP below 130 mmHg . Until firmer evidence is provided by new trials, it appears reasonable to lower SBP down to the 130–139 mmHg range in patients with concomitant coronary heart disease.
The failure to significantly reduce heart failure with preserved systolic function in the I-PRESERVE study  has to be pointed out. Although this type of heart failure is most often related to hypertension, in I-PRESERVE randomization to the angiotensin receptor antagonist, irbesartan, or to placebo, in more than 4000 patients with chronic heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction more than 0.45 (88% of whom had a history of hypertension) did not show any difference in the primary endpoint of death from any cause or hospitalization for a cardiovascular cause as well as in the secondary outcome of a composite of heart failure events. This occurred despite a 3.5/2.0 mmHg SBP/DBP difference in favor of irbesartan. The negative results of I-PRESERVE, however, should be seen in the context of the complex design of the trial, in which a background of intense antihypertensive therapy, including 25% of ACE inhibitors (39% during the trial), was maintained, and initial BP was only 136/79 mmHg, thus further strengthening the question as to whether lowering SBP much below 140 mmHg is of any further benefit. It should be noted that 59% of I-PRESERVE patients were on antiplatelet agents, 19% on oral anticoagulant therapy, and 30% on lipid-lowering agents.
The efficacy of angiotensin receptor antagonists in the prevention of heart failure has come under some discussion also as a result of the TRANSCEND  and PROFESS  studies. In both these placebo-controlled trials, randomization to telmisartan did not reduce the incidence of hospitalization for heart failure below that occurring on placebo. In ONTARGET , the number of hospitalizations for heart failure was lower (though not significantly) with ramipril than with telmisartan. However, the risk of heart failure in all these trials was rather low, and definitive conclusions cannot be reached at present.
The 2007 ESH/ESC guidelines also reported the results of small studies suggesting that the angiotensin receptor antagonists may exert favorable effects on recurrent atrial fibrillation in patients with previous episodes of this arrhythmia [265,266]. Along the same lines, enalapril has been reported to facilitate maintenance of sinus rhythm after conversion treatment . However, the guidelines stressed the small number of patients in these studies and concluded that more information was expected from ongoing specific trials with sufficient statistical power. Two specific trials have been completed quite recently (CAPRAF , GISSI-AF ) and their results are not supportive of protective effects from angiotensin receptor antagonists against recurrence of atrial fibrillation. In GISSI-AF 1442 patients (85% with a history of hypertension) having had at least two episodes of atrial fibrillation in the previous 6 months, need for DC conversion and frequently treated with ACE inhibitors and class I and III antiarrythmic drugs were randomized to either valsartan (up to 320 mg/day) or placebo and followed up for a mean period of 223 days. Incidence of at least one episode of atrial fibrillation was 51.4% on valsartan and 52.1% on placebo (hazard ratio 0.99, P = 0.84). A recent meta-analysis of all studies of secondary prevention of atrial fibrillation with blockers of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system appears to indicate an overall benefits of these agents, however (R. Schmieder et al., personal communication).
This aspect deserves a brief comment because of the recent publication of a new meta-analysis from the Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration, investigating benefit of antihypertensive treatment in men and women : both BP lowering and reduction in outcomes were similar in the two sexes and no sex-related differences in response to various classes of antihypertensive agents could be detected.
Erectile dysfunction is a prevalent condition in hypertensive patients and a predictor of future cardiovascular events. Screening and treatment of erectile dysfunction improves management of cardiovascular risk factors. After initiating therapy with phosphodiesterase (PDE) 5 inhibitors, patients are more likely to take antihypertensive medication and BP control is improved . Older antihypertensive drugs (diuretics, β-blockers, centrally acting drugs) exert negative effects, whereas newer drugs have neutral or beneficial effects (calcium antagonists, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor antagonists, nebivolol) .
The benefit of combining a statin with antihypertensive treatment in hypertensive patients was well established by the ASCOT-LLA study , as summarized in the 2007 ESH/ESC guidelines . The negative results obtained with another statin in the ALLHAT study  can be attributed to insufficient lowering of total cholesterol (11% in ALLHAT as compared with 20% in ASCOT). Further analyses of ASCOT have shown the addition of a statin to the amlodipine-based antihypertensive therapy can reduce the primary cardiovascular outcome even more markedly than addition of a statin to the atenolol-based antihypertensive therapy [276,277]. The beneficial effect of statin administration to patients without previous cardiovascular events has been strengthened by the findings of the JUPITER study , showing that lowering LDL-cholesterol by 50% in patients with baseline values less than 130 mg/dl (3.4 mmol/l), but elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), reduced cardiovascular events by 44%.
In conclusion, the recommendation given in the 2007 guidelines to consider statin therapy in hypertensive patients who have an estimated 10-year risk of cardiovascular events more than 20% can be reconfirmed, but the JUPITER study  suggests that statin benefits can be observed also in patients with elevated CRP and at moderate cardiovascular risk (about 15% cardiovascular events in 10 years).
A large meta-analysis has just been published of serious cardiovascular outcomes and major bleeds in six primary prevention trials (95 000 individuals at low cardiovascular risk, 660 000 person-years) and 16 secondary prevention trials (17 000 individuals at high cardiovascular risk, 43 000 person-years) that compared long-term aspirin versus control . In the primary prevention trials, aspirin allocation led to a significant 12% reduction in serious cardiovascular events (mostly nonfatal myocardial infarction). However, as a consequence of the overall low risk of the individuals, absolute event reduction amounted to only 0.06 events per 100 patient-years, which was counterbalanced by an absolute increase in major gastrointestinal and extracranial bleeds of 0.03 bleeds per 100 patient-years. In the secondary prevention trials, aspirin allocation yielded a greater absolute reduction in serious cardiovascular events (1.5 event per 100 patient-years). Although only few secondary prevention trials carefully reported bleed incidence, data from trials reporting bleeds suggest an extracranial bleed excess of no more than 0.2 event per 100 patient-years. It can, therefore, be concluded that, although administration of aspirin has a clear benefit/harm ratio in patients with cardiovascular disease, there is only a very tiny excess of benefit over harm in the low-risk patients included in primary prevention trials.
Of course, the division between primary and secondary prevention is artificial and arbitrary, and individuals who have not yet experienced a cardiovascular event can be at very different levels of total risk. Attention has been directed to the possible benefits of aspirin in patients with diabetes but still free of overt cardiovascular disease. In the hypertensive patients with diabetes in the HOT study, cardiovascular outcome reduction by aspirin did not achieve statistical significance [280,281], nor was a clear benefit seen in diabetic patients included in other trials . Furthermore, the recent findings of a large primary prevention study carried out on diabetic patients in Japan could only show that low-dose aspirin was associated with a nonsignificant reduction in cardiovascular outcomes . Therefore, the benefits of antiplatelet therapy in diabetes remain to be established.
The finding that in the HOT study, the greatest benefit of low-dose aspirin and the best benefit/harm ratio occurred in patients with serum creatinine more than 1.3 mg/l  has been further elaborated by estimating GFR and calculating the effects of aspirin versus placebo in three groups with eGFR 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 or more, 45–59 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and less than 45 ml/min per 1.73 m2. There was a significant trend for increasing reduction in major cardiovascular events and death with progressive decline in eGRF, the reduction being particularly marked in hypertensive patients with eGFR less than 45 ml/min per 1.73 m2. In this group of patients, the risk of bleeding was modest as compared with the cardiovascular benefit .
In conclusion, the prudent recommendations of the 2007 ESH/ESC guidelines can be reconfirmed: antiplatelet therapy, in particular low-dose aspirin, should be prescribed to hypertensive patients with previous cardiovascular events; it can also be considered in hypertensive patients without a history of cardiovascular disease with reduced renal function or with a high cardiovascular risk. In patients receiving aspirin, careful attention should always be given to the increased possibility of bleeding, particularly gastrointestinal.
The 2007 European guidelines reviewed the data on the target blood glucose and HbA1c values to be reached in diabetic patients, an issue of practical importance because of the highly prevalent association of type 2 diabetes with hypertension . They indicated a tight blood glucose control, that is, a glycemic value less than 6.0 mmol/l (108 mg/dl) and an HbA1c less than 6.5%, to be desirable as a means to minimize the blood glucose-related macrovascular and microvascular complications, as shown in observational studies [1,284]. Since then, two major large-scale randomized trials, ADVANCE and ACCORD, focused on the effects of tight versus standard blood glucose control in type 2 diabetes, have been published with inconsistent results [285,286]. In ADVANCE, the factorial design included assessment of the effects of tight blood glucose control (goal HbA1c < 6.5%) via administration of gliclazide-MR as well as other available pharmacological means versus standard blood glucose control in patients with or without the additional administration of the indapamide/perindopril combination, as mentioned in the previous sections. In patients with tight blood glucose control, the average on-treatment HbA1c was 6.5%, a value definitely lower than that seen in the standard treated group (7.3%). This was accompanied by a significant, although modest, reduction (−10%) in the composite primary endpoint (microvascular and macrovascular events) of the trial, which was entirely due to reductions of the microvascular component, as macrovascular endpoints did not show any significant between-group difference. In ACCORD, the goal was to lower HbA1c to less than 6.0%, which led to a 6.5% average on-treatment HbA1c value reached by patients on tight blood glucose control (versus 7.5% of the comparison group). This was associated with a reduction in the incidence of myocardial infarction, which was accompanied, however, by a significant and marked increase (+35%) in all-cause mortality, leading the tight blood glucose control arm to a premature termination. The reasons for the different results of the two trials are unclear, although the most likely hypothesis seems to be that, compared with ADVANCE, tight blood glucose control in ACCORD was obtained much more abruptly (less than 6 months versus 2 years) by a much larger use of antidiabetic drugs (thiazolinediones 91.7 versus 16.8%, insulin 77.3 versus 40.5%, and metformin 86.6 versus 73.8%), which might have favored hypoglycemic-related events as indirectly shown by the exceedingly high number of hypoglycemic episodes reported in the tight blood glucose as compared to the control group.
In the past 10–15 years, several trials of antihypertensive therapy have been completed, but these have mostly centered on comparisons between different agents or focused on high cardiovascular risk patients, and have used so complex designs and so numerous concomitant therapies as to often make interpretation of their results difficult and controversial (Box 9). Although these trials have nevertheless added further useful information, some major issues have not been explored or have been insufficiently clarified. As a consequence, many important decisions on hypertension management are currently taken only on the basis of post hoc analyses of trial data relating cardiovascular events to achieved BP values, which have notorious limitations because of loss of randomized design and potential differences in baseline risk of patients achieving different BP values. Therefore, it appears highly desirable that recommendations on the BP threshold for initiation of drug treatment and on BP targets in different groups of patients are supported by information from prospective randomized trials designed to address persisting gaps in current knowledge.
The following issues appear in urgent need to be approached by simply designed trials:
We are grateful to Fosca Quarti-Trevano, MD, Ms Clara Sincich, Ms Cinzia Tiberi and Ms Donatella Mihalich for their valuable help.
1 Mancia G, De Backer G, Dominiczak A, Cifkova R, Fagard R, Germano G, Grassi G, Heagerty AM, Kjeldsen SE, Laurent S, Narkiewicz K, Ruilope L, Rynkiewicz A, Schmieder RE, Struijker Boudier HA, Zanchetti A. 2007 Guidelines for the Management of Arterial Hypertension: The Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). J Hypertens 2007; 25:1105–1187.
2 Havranek EP, Froshaug DB, Emserman CD, Hanratty R, Krantz MJ, Masoudi FA, Dickinson LM, Steiner JF. Left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiovascular mortality by race and ethnicity. Am J Med 2008; 121:870–875.
3 Li Z, Dahlöf B, Okin PM, Kjeldsen SE, Wachtell K, Ibsen H, Nieminen MS, Jern S, Devereux RB. Bundle branch block and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension study. J Hypertens 2008; 26:1244–1249.
4 Verdecchia P, Angeli F, Cavallini C, Mazzotta G, Repaci S, Pede S, Borgioni C, Gentile G, Reboldi G. The voltage of R wave in lead aVL improves risk stratification in hypertensive patients without ECG left ventricular hypertrophy. J Hypertens 2009; 27:1697–1704.
5 Milani RV, Lavie CJ, Mehra MR, Ventura HO, Kurtz JD, Messerli FH. Left ventricular geometry and survival in patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction. Am J Cardiol 2006; 97:959–963.
6 Taylor HA, Penman AD, Han H, Dele-Michael A, Skelton TN, Fox ER, Benjamin EJ, Arnett DK, Mosley TH Jr. Left ventricular architecture and survival in African-Americans free of coronary heart disease (from the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities [ARIC] study). Am J Cardiol 2007; 99:1413–1420.
7 Tsioufis C, Vezali E, Tsiachris D, Dimitriadis K, Taxiarchou E, Chatzis D, Thomopoulos C, Syrseloudis D, Stefanadi E, Mihas C, Katsi V, Papademetriou V, Stefanadis C. Left ventricular hypertrophy versus chronic kidney disease as predictors of cardiovascular events in hypertension: a Greek 6-year-follow-up study. J Hypertens 2009; 27:744–752.
8 Yasuno S, Ueshima K, Oba K, Fujimoto A, Ogihara T, Saruta T, Nakao K. Clinical significance of left ventricular hypertrophy and changes in left ventricular mass in high-risk hypertensive patients: a subanalysis of the Candesartan Antihypertensive Survival Evaluation in Japan trial. J Hypertens 2009; 27:1705–1712.
9 Bombelli M, Facchetti R, Carugo S, Madotto M, Arenare F, Quarti-Trevano F, Capra A, Giannattasio C, Dell'Oro R, Grassi G, Sega R, Mancia G. Left ventricular hypertrophy increases cardiovascular risk independently of in- and out-of office blood pressure values. J Hypertens
2009. [Epub ahead of print]
10 Zanchetti A, Hennig M, Hollweck R, Baurecht H, Bond G, Tang R, Cuspidi C, Parati G, Facchetti R, Mancia G. Baseline values but not treatment induced changes in carotid intima media thickness predict incident cardiovascular events in treated hypertensives. Findings in the ELSA. Circulation 2009; 120:1084–1090.
11 Sehestedt T, Jeppesen J, Hansen TW, Rasmussen S, Wachtell K, Ibsen H, Torp-Pedersen C, Olsen MH. Which markers of subclinical organ damage to measure in individuals with high normal blood pressure? J Hypertens 2009; 27:1165–1171.
12 Inoue M, Maeda R, Kawakami H, Shokawa T, Yamamoto H, Ito C, Sasaki H. Aortic pulse wave velocity predicts cardiovascular mortality in middle-aged and elderly Japanese men. Circ J 2009; 73:549–553.
13 Jankowski P, Kawecka-Jaszcz K, Czarnecka D, Brzozowska-Kiszka M, Styczkiewicz K, Loster M, Kloch-Badelek M, Wilinski J, Curylo AM, Dudek D, Aortic blood pressure and survival study group. Pulsatile but not steady component of blood pressure predicts cardiovascular events in coronary patients. Hypertension 2008; 51:848–855.
14 Wang KL, Cheng HM, Chuang SY, Spurgeon HA, Ting CT, Lakatta EG, Yin FCP, Chou P, Chen CH. Central or peripheral systolic or pulse pressure: which best relates to target organs and future mortality? J Hypertens 2009; 27:461–467.
15 Cuspidi C. Cardio-renal organ damage and cardiovascular outcomes in hypertension. J Hypertens 2009; 27:702–706.
16 Cirillo M, Lanti MP, Menotti A, Laurenzi M, Mancini M, Zanchetti A, De Santo NG. Definition of kidney dysfunction as a cardiovascular risk factor: use of urinary albumin excretion and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Arch Intern Med 2008; 168:617–624.
17 Ruilope LM, Zanchetti A, Julius S, McInnes GT, Segura J, Stolt P, Hua TA, Weber MA, Jamerson K, VALUE Investigators. Prediction of cardiovascular outcome by estimated glomerular filtration rate and estimated creatinine clearance in the high-risk hypertension population of the VALUE trial. J Hypertens 2007; 25:1473–1479.
18 Ninomiya T, Perkovic V, de Galan BE, Zoungas S, Pillai A, Jardine M, Patel A, Cass A, Neal B, Poulter N, Mogensen CE, Cooper M, Marre M, Williams B, Hamet P, Mancia G, Woodward M, MacMahon S, Chalmers J, ADVANCE Collaborative Group. Albuminuria and kidney function independently predict cardiovascular and renal outcomes in diabetes. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 20:1813–1821.
19 Waeber B, de la Sierra A, Ruilope LM. Target organ damage: how to detect it and how to treat it? J Hypertens 2009; 27(Suppl 3):S13–S18.
20 de Zeeuw D. Albuminuria: a target for treatment of type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Semin Nephrol 2007; 27:172–181.
21 Kearney-Schwartz A, Rossignol P, Bracard S, Felblinger J, Fay R, Boivin JM, Lecompte T, Lacolley P, Benetos A, Zannad F. Vascular structure and function is correlated to cognitive performance and white matter hyperintensities in older hypertensive patients with subjective memory complaints. Stroke 2009; 40:1229–1236.
22 Henskens LH, van Oostenbrugge RJ, Kroon AA, Hofman PA, Lodder J, de Leeuw PW. Detection of silent cerebrovascular disease refines risk stratification of hypertensive patients. J Hypertens 2009; 27:846–853.
23 Stewart R, Xue QL, Masaki K, Petrovitch H, Ross GW, White LR, Launer LJ. Change in blood pressure and incident dementia. A 32-Year Prospective Study. Hypertension 2009; 54:233–240.
24 World Health Organization. Life in the 21st century: a vision for all: the World Health Report
. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1998.
25 De Ciuceis C, Porteri E, Rizzoni D, Rizzardi N, Paiardi S, Boari GEM, Miclini M, Zani F, Muiesan ML, Donato F, Salvetti M, Castellano M, Tiberio GAM, Giulini SM, Agabiti Rosei E. Structural alterations of subcutaneous small arteries may predict major cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients. Am J Hypertens 2007; 20:846–852.
26 Mathiassen ON, Buus NH, Sihm I, Thybo NK, Mørn B, Schroeder AP, Thygesen K, Aalkjaer C, Lederballe O, Mulvany MJ, Christensen KL. Small artery structure is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in essential hypertension. J Hypertens 2007; 25:1021–1026.
27 Harazny JM, Ritt M, Baleanu D, Ott C, Heckmann J, Schlaich MP, Michelson G, Schmieder RE. Increased wall:lumen ratio of retinal arterioles in male patients with a history of a cerebrovascular event. Hypertension 2007; 50:623–829.
28 Shimbo D, Grahame-Clarke C, Miyake Y, Rodriguez C, Sciacca R, Di Tullio M, Boden-Albala B, Sacco R, Homma S. The association between endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular outcomes in a population-based multiethnic cohort. Atherosclerosis 2007; 192:197–203.
29 Yeboah J, Crouse JR, Hsu F-C, Burke GL, Herrington DM. Brachial flow-mediated dilation predicts incident cardiovascular events in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Circulation 2007; 115:2390–2397.
30 Muiesan ML, Salvetti M, Paini A, Monteduro C, Galbassini G, Poisa P, Porteri E, Agabiti-Rosei C, Paderno V, Belotti E, Rizzoni D, Castellano M, Agabiti-Rosei E. Prognostic role of flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery in hypertensive patients. J Hypertens 2008; 26:1612–1618.
31 Rizzoni D, Porteri E, De Ciuceis C, Boari GE, Zani F, Miclini M, Paiardi S, Tiberio GA, Giulini SM, Muiesan ML, Castellano M, Rosei EA. Lack of prognostic role of endothelial dysfunction in subcutaneous small resistance arteries of hypertensive patients. J Hypertens 2006; 24:867–873.
32 Wang TJ, Gona P, Larson MG, Tofler GH, Levy D, Newton-Cheh C, Jacques PF, Rifai N, Selhub J, Robins SJ, Benjamin EJ, D'Agostino RB, Vasan RS. Multiple biomarkers for the prediction of first major cardiovascular events and death. N Engl J Med 2006; 355:2631–2639.
33 Koren MJ, Devereux RB, Casale PN, Savage DD, Laragh JH. Relation of left ventricular mass and geometry to morbidity and mortality in uncomplicated essential hypertension. Ann Intern Med 1991; 114:345–352.
34 Levy D, Garrison RJ, Savage DD, Kannel WB, Castelli WP. Prognostic implications of echocardiographically determined left ventricular mass in the Framingham Heart Study. N Engl J Med 1990; 322:1561–1566.
35 O'Leary DH, Polak JF, Kronmal RA, Manolio TA, Burke GL, Wolfson SK Jr. Carotid-artery intima and media thickness as a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in older adults. Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med 1999; 340:14–22.
36 Laurent S, Cockcroft J, Van Bortel L, Boutouyrie P, Giannattasio C, Hayoz D, Pannier B, Vlachopoulos C, Wilkinson I, Struijker-Boudier HAJ. Expert consensus document on arterial stiffness: methodological issues and clinical applications. Eur Heart J 2006; 27:2588–2605.
37 Fowkes GF, and the Ankle Brachial Index Collaboration. Ankle brachial index combined with Framingham Risk Score to predict cardiovascular events and mortality: a meta-analysis. JAMA 2008; 300:197–200.
38 De Buyzere M, Clement DL. Management of hypertension in peripheral arterial disease. Progress Cardiovasc Dis 2008; 50:238–263.
39 Ruilope LM, Salvetti A, Jamerson K, Hansson L, Warnold I, Wedel H, Zanchetti A. Renal function and intensive lowering of blood pressure in hypertensive participants of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) study. J Am Soc Nephrol 2001; 12:218–225.
40 de Leeuw PW, Ruilope LM, Palmer CR, Brown MJ, Castaigne A, Mancia G, Rosenthal T, Wagener G. Clinical significance of renal function in hypertensive patients at high risk: results from the INSIGHT trial. Arch Intern Med 2004; 164:2459–2464.
41 Jensen JS, Feldt-Rasmussen B, Strandgaard S, Schroll M, Borch-Johnsen K. Arterial hypertension, microalbuminuria, and risk of ischemic heart disease. Hypertension 2000; 35:898–903.
42 Culleton BF, Larson MG, Wilson PW, Evans JC, Parfrey PS, Levy D. Cardiovascular disease and mortality in a community-based cohort with mild renal insufficiency. Kidney Int 1999; 56:2214–2219.
43 Hillege HL, Fidler V, Diercks GF, van Gilst WH, de Zeeuw D, van Veldhuisen DJ, Gans RO, Janssen WM, Grobbee DE, de Jong PE, Prevention of Renal and Vascular End Stage Disease (PREVEND) Study Group. Urinary albumin excretion predicts cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality in general population. Circulation 2002; 106:1777–1782.
44 Conroy RM, Pyörälä K, Fitzgerald AP, Sans S, Menotti A, De Backer G, De Bacquer D, Ducimetière P, Jousilahti P, Keil U, Njølstad I, Oganov RG, Thomsen T, Tunstall-Pedoe H, Tverdal A, Wedel H, Whincup P, Wilhelmsen L, Graham IM, SCORE project group. Estimation of ten-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease in Europe: the SCORE project. Eur Heart J 2003; 24:987–1003.
45 Arnlöv J, Evans JC, Meigs JB, Wang TJ, Fox CS, Levy D, Benjamin EJ, D'Agostino RB, Vasan RS. Low-grade albuminuria and incidence of cardiovascular disease events in nonhypertensive and nondiabetic individuals: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 2005; 112:969–975.
46 Devereux RB, Wachtell K, Gerdts E, Boman K, Nieminen MS, Papademetriou V, Rokkedal J, Harris K, Aurup P, Dahlöf B. Prognostic significance of left ventricular mass change during treatment of hypertension. JAMA 2004; 292:2350–2356.
47 Ibsen H, Olsen MH, Wachtell K, Borch-Johnsen K, Lindholm LH, Mogensen CE, Dahlöf B, Devereux RB, de Faire U, Fyhrquist F, Julius S, Kjeldsen SE, Lederballe-Pedersen O, Nieminen MS, Omvik P, Oparil S, Wan Y. Reduction in albuminuria translates to reduction in cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients: Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study. Hypertension 2005; 45:198–202.
48 de Zeeuw D, Parving HH, Henning RH. Microalbuminuria as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 17:2100–2105.
49 Gerdts E, Wachtell K, Omvik P, Otterstad JE, Oikarinen L, Boman K, Dahlöf B, Devereux RB. Left atrial size and risk of major cardiovascular events during antihypertensive treatment: Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension trial. Hypertension 2007; 49:311–316.
50 Gerdts E, Cramariuc D, de Simone G, Wachtell K, Dahlöf B, Devereux RB. Impact of left ventricular geometry on prognosis in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (the LIFE study). Eur J Echocardiogr 2008; 9:809–815.
51 Okin PM, Devereux RB, Jern S, Kjeldsen SE, Julius S, Nieminen MS, Snapinn S, Harris KE, Aurup P, Edelman JM, Wedel H, Lindholm LH, Dahlof B, LIFE Study Investigators. Regression of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy during antihypertensive treatment and the prediction of major cardiovascular events. JAMA 2004; 292:2343–2349.
52 Muiesan ML, Salvetti M, Paini A, Monteduro C, Galbassini G, Bonzi B, Poisa P, Belotti E, Agabiti Rosei C, Rizzoni D, Castellano M, Agabiti Rosei E. Inappropriate left ventricular mass changes during treatment adversely affects cardiovascular prognosis in hypertensive patients. Hypertension 2007; 49:1077–1083.
53 Mann JF, Schmieder RE, McQueen M, Dyal L, Schumacher H, Pogue J, Wang X, Maggioni A, Budaj A, Chaithiraphan S, Dickstein K, Keltai M, Metsärinne K, Oto A, Parkhomenko A, Piegas LS, Svendsen TL, Teo KK, Yusuf S, ONTARGET Investigators. Renal outcomes with telmisartan, ramipril, or both, in people at high vascular risk (the ONTARGET study): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, controlled trial. Lancet 2008; 372:547–553.
54 Mancia G, Bombelli M, Corrao G, Facchetti R, Madotto F, Giannattasio C, Quarti-Trevano F, Grassi G, Zanchetti A, Sega R. Metabolic syndrome in the Pressioni Arteriose Monitorate E Loro Associazioni (PAMELA) study: daily life blood pressure, cardiac damage, and prognosis. Hypertension 2007; 49:40–47.
55 Mancia G, Bombelli M, Facchetti R, Madotto F, Corrao G, Quarti-Trevano F, Giannattasio C, Grassi G, Sega R. Long-term risk of diabetes, hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy associated with the metabolic syndrome in a general population. J Hypertens 2008; 26:1602–1611.
56 Norton GR, Maseko M, Libhaber E, Libhaber CD, Majane OH, Dessein P, Sareli P, Woodiwiss AJ. Is prehypertension an independent predictor of target organ changes in young-to-middle-aged persons of African descent? J Hypertens 2008; 26:2279–2987.
57 Isles CG, Walker LM, Beevers GD, Brown I, Cameron HL, Clarke J, Hawthorne V, Hole D, Lever AF, Robertson JW. Mortality in patients of the Glasgow Blood Pressure Clinic. J Hypertens 1986; 4:141–156.
58 Lindholm L, Ejlertsson G, Scherstén B. High risk of cerebro-cardiovascular morbidity in well treated male hypertensives. A retrospective study of 40-59-year-old hypertensives in a Swedish primary care district. Acta Med Scand 1984; 216:251–259.
59 Thürmer HL, Lund-Larsen PG, Tverdal A. Is blood pressure treatment as effective in a population setting as in controlled trials? Results from a prospective study. J Hypertens 1994; 12:481–490.
60 Benetos A, Thomas F, Bean KE, Guize L. Why cardiovascular mortality is higher in treated hypertensives versus subjects of the same age, in the general population. J Hypertens 2003; 21:1635–1640.
61 Almgren T, Persson B, Wilhelmsen L, Rosengren A, Andersson OK. Stroke and coronary heart disease in treated hypertension: a prospective cohort study over three decades. J Intern Med 2005; 257:496–502.
62 Asayama K, Ohkubo T, Yoshida S, Suzuki K, Metoki H, Harada A, Murakami Y, Ohashi Y, Ueshima H, Imai Y, Japan Arteriosclerosis Longitudinal Study (JALS) group. Stroke risk and antihypertensive drug treatment in the general population: the Japan Arteriosclerosis Longitudinal Study. J Hypertens 2009; 27:357–364.
63 Zanchetti A. Bottom blood pressure or bottom cardiovascular risk? How far can cardiovascular risk be reduced? J Hypertens 2009; 27:1509–1520.
64 Ibsen H. Antihypertensive treatment and risk of cardiovascular complications: is the cure worse than the disease? J Hypertens 2009; 27:221–223.
65 Guidelines Sub-Committee. 1999 World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the management of hypertension. J Hypertens
66 Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL Jr, Jones DW, Materson BJ, Oparil S, Wright JT Jr, Roccella EJ, Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Committee. Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Hypertension 2003; 42:1206–1252.
67 Rosendorff C, Black HR, Cannon CP, Gersh BJ, Gore J, Izzo JL Jr, Kaplan NM, O'Connor CM, O'Gara PT, Oparil S, American Heart Association Council for High Blood Pressure Research; American Heart Association Council on Clinical Cardiology; American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention. Treatment of hypertension in the prevention and management of ischemic heart disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council for High Blood Pressure Research and the Councils on Clinical Cardiology and Epidemiology and Prevention. Circulation 2007; 115:2761–2788.
68 Sanchez RA, Ayala M, Baglivo H, Velazquez C, Burlando G, Kohlmann O, Jimenez J, Lopez-Jaramillo P, Brandao A, Valdes G, Alcocer L, Bendersky M, Ramirez AJ, Zanchetti A, Latin America Expert Group. Latin American Guidelines on Hypertension. J Hypertens 2009; 27:905–922.
69 Ogihara T, Kikuchi K, Matsuoka H, Fujita T, Higaki J, Horiuchi M, Imai Y, Imaizumi T, Ito S, Iwao H, Kario K, Kawano Y, Kim-Mitsuyama S, Kimura G, Matsubara H, Matsuura H, Naruse M, Saito I, Shimada K, Shimamoto K, Suzuki H, Takishita S, Tanahashi N, Tsuchihashi T, Uchiyama M, Ueda S, Ueshima H, Umemura S, Ishimitsu T, Rakugi H. The Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension (JSH 2009). Hypertens Res 2009; 32:3–107.
70 Graham I, Atar D, Borch-Johnsen K, Boysen G, Burell G, Cifkova R, Dallongeville J, De Backer G, Ebrahim S, Gjelsvik B, Herrmann-Lingen C, Hoes A, Humphries S, Knapton M, Perk J, Priori SG, Pyorala K, Reiner Z, Ruilope L, Sans-Menendez S, Op Reimer WS, Weissberg P, Wood D, Yarnell J, Zamorano JL. European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: executive summary. Fourth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and other societies on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (constituted by representatives of nine societies and by invited experts). Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2007; 14(Suppl 2):E1–E40.
71 Zanchetti A, Grassi G, Mancia G. When should antihypertensive drug treatment be initiated and to what levels should systolic blood pressure be lowered? A critical reappraisal. J Hypertens 2009; 27:923–934.
72 Medical Research Council trial of treatment of mild hypertension: principal results. MRC Working Party. BMJ
73 Management Committee. The Australian therapeutic trial in mild hypertension. Lancet
74 Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program Cooperative Group: The effect of treatment on mortality in ‘mild’ hypertension: results of the Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program. N Engl J Med
75 Liu L, Zhang Y, Liu G, Li W, Zhang X, Zanchetti A, FEVER Study Group. The Felodipine Event Reduction (FEVER) Study: a randomized long-term placebo-controlled trial in Chinese hypertensive patients. J Hypertens 2005; 23:2157–2172.
76 Amery A, Birkenhäger W, Brixko P, Bulpitt C, Clement D, Deruyttere M, De Schaepdryver A, Dollery C, Fagard R, Forette F. Mortality and morbidity results from the European Working Party on High Blood Pressure in the Elderly trial. Lancet 1985; 1:1349–1354.
77 Coope J, Warrender TS. Randomised trial of treatment of hypertension in elderly patients in primary care. BMJ (Clin Res Ed) 1986; 293:1145–1151.
78 SHEP Cooperative Research Group. Prevention of stroke by antihypertensive drug treatment in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension. Final results of the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP). JAMA
79 Dahlöf B, Lindholm LH, Hansson L, Scherstén B, Ekbom T, Wester PO. Morbidity and mortality in the Swedish Trial in Old Patients with Hypertension (STOP-Hypertension). Lancet 1991; 338:1281–1285.
80 MRC Working Party. Medical Research Council trial of treatment of hypertension in older adults: principal results. BMJ
81 Staessen JA, Fagard R, Thijs L, Celis H, Arabidze GG, Birkenhäger WH, Bulpitt CJ, de Leeuw PW, Dollery CT, Fletcher AE, Forette F, Leonetti G, Nachev C, O'Brien ET, Rosenfeld J, Rodicio JL, Tuomilehto J, Zanchetti A, for The Systolic Hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) Trial Investigators. Randomised double-blind comparison of placebo and active treatment for older patients with isolated systolic hypertension. The Systolic Hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) Trial Investigators. Lancet 1997; 350:757–764.
82 Liu L, Wang JG, Gong L, Liu G, Staessen JA, for the Systolic Hypertension in China (Syst-China) Collaborative Group. Comparison of active treatment and placebo in older Chinese patients with isolated systolic hypertension. J Hypertens 1998; 16:1823–1829.
83 Lithell H, Hansson L, Skoog I, Elmfeldt D, Hofman A, Olofsson B, Trenkwalder P, Zanchetti A, SCOPE Study Group. The Study on Cognition and Prognosis in the Elderly (SCOPE). Principal results of a randomised double-blind intervention trial. J Hypertens 2003; 21:875–886.
84 Beckett NS, Peters R, Fletcher AE, Staessen JA, Liu L, Dumitrascu D, Stoyanovsky V, Antikainen RL, Nikitin Y, Anderson C, Belhani A, Forette F, Rajkumar C, Thijs L, Banya W, Bulpitt CJ, HYVET Study Group. Treatment of hypertension in patients 80 years of age or older. N Engl J Med 2008; 358:1887–1898.
85 JATOS Study Group. Principal results of the Japanese trial to assess optimal systolic blood pressure in elderly hypertensive patients (JATOS). Hypertens Res
86 Schrier RW, Estacio RO, Esler A, Mehler P. Effects of aggressive blood pressure control in normotensive type 2 diabetic patients on albuminuria, retinopathy and strokes. Kidney Int 2002; 61:1086–1097.
87 Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) Study investigators. Effects of ramipril on cardiovascular and microvascular outcomes in people with diabetes mellitus: results of the HOPE study and MICROHOPE substudy. Lancet
88 ADVANCE Collaborative Group. Effects of a fixed combination of perindopril and indapamide on macrovascular and microvascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (the ADVANCE trial): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet
89 PROGRESS Collaborative Study Group. Randomised trial of perindopril based blood pressure-lowering regimen among 6108 individuals with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Lancet
90 Arima H, Chalmers J, Woodward M, Anderson C, Rodgers A, Davis S, MacMahon S, Neal B, for the PROGRESS Collaborative Group. Lower target blood pressures are safe and effective for the prevention of recurrent stroke: the PROGRESS trial. J Hypertens 2006; 24:1201–1208.
91 Yusuf S, Diener HC, Sacco RL, Cotton D, Ounpuu S, Lawton WA, Palesch Y, Martin RH, Albers GW, Bath P, Bornstein N, Chan BP, Chen ST, Cunha L, Dahlöf B, De Keyser J, Donnan GA, Estol C, Gorelick P, Gu V, Hermansson K, Hilbrich L, Kaste M, Lu C, Machnig T, Pais P, Roberts R, Skvortsova V, Teal P, Toni D, VanderMaelen C, Voigt T, Weber M, Yoon BW, PRoFESS Study Group. Telmisartan to prevent recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med 2008; 359:1225–1237.
92 Zanchetti A, Mancia G, Black HR, Oparil S, Waeber B, Schmieder RE, Bakris GL, Messerli FH, Kjeldsen SE, Ruilope LM. Facts and fallacies of blood pressure control in recent trials: implications in the management of patients with hypertension. J Hypertens 2009; 27:673–679.
93 The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med
94 EURopean trial On reduction of cardiac events with Perindopril in stable coronary Artery disease Investigators. Efficacy of perindopril in reduction of cardiovascular events among patients with stable coronary artery disease: randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial (the EUROPA study). Lancet
95 Nissen SE, Tuzcu EM, Libby P, Thompson PD, Ghali M, Garza D, Berman L, Shi H, Buebendorf E, Topol EJ, CAMELOT Investigators. Effect of antihypertensive agents on cardiovascular events in patients with coronary disease and normal blood pressure: the CAMELOT study – a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004; 292:2217–2225.
96 Poole-Wilson PA, Lubsen J, Kirwan BA, van Dalen FJ, Wagener G, Danchin N, Just H, Fox KA, Pocock SJ, Clayton TC, Motro M, Parker JD, Bourassa MG, Dart AM, Hildebrandt P, Hjalmarson A, Kragten JA, Molhoek GP, Otterstad JE, Seabra-Gomes R, Soler-Soler J, Weber S, A Coronary disease Trial Investigating Outcome with Nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system investigators. Effect of long-acting nifedipine on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in patients with stable angina requiring treatment (ACTION trial): randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2004; 364:849–857.
97 The PEACE trial investigators. Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition in stable coronary artery disease. New Engl J Med
98 Helgeland A. Treatment of mild hypertension: a five year controlled drug trial. The Oslo study. Am J Med 1980; 69:725–732.
99 Hansson L, Zanchetti A, Carruthers SG, Dahlöf B, Elmfeldt D, Julius S, Ménard J, Rahn KH, Wedel H, Westerling S. Effects of intensive blood-pressure lowering and low-dose aspirin in patients with hypertension: principal results of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) randomised trial. HOT Study Group. Lancet 1998; 351:1755–1762.
100 Curb JD, Pressel SL, Cutler JA, Savage PJ, Applegate WB, Black H, Camel G, Davis BR, Frost PH, Gonzalez N, Guthrie G, Oberman A, Rutan GH, Stamler J. Effect of diuretic-based antihypertensive treatment on cardiovascular disease risk in older diabetic patients with isolated systolic hypertension. Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program Cooperative Research Group. JAMA 1996; 276:1886–1892.
101 UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 38. BMJ
102 Tuomilehto J, Rastenyte D, Birkenhäger WH, Thijs L, Antikainen R, Bulpitt CJ, Fletcher AE, Forette F, Goldhaber A, Palatini P, Sarti C, Fagard R. Effects of calcium-channel blockade in older patients with diabetes and systolic hypertension. Systolic Hypertension in Europe Trial Investigators. N Engl J Med 1999; 340:677–684.
103 Estacio RO, Jeffers BW, Gifford N, Schrier RW. Effect of blood pressure control on diabetic microvascular complications in patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2000; 23(Suppl 2):B54–B64.
104 Lewis EJ, Hunsicker LG, Clarke WR, Berl T, Pohl MA, Lewis JB, Ritz E, Atkins RC, Rohde R, Raz I, Collaborative Study Group. Renoprotective effect of the angiotensin-receptor antagonist irbesartan in patients with nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2001; 345:851–860.
105 Brenner BM, Cooper ME, de Zeeuw D, Keane WF, Mitch WE, Parving HH, Remuzzi G, Snapinn SM, Zhang Z, Shahinfar S, RENAAL Study Investigators. Effects of losartan on renal and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. N Engl J Med 2001; 345:861–869.
106 Berthet K, Neal BC, Chalmers JP, MacMahon SW, Bousser MG, Colman SA, Woodward M, Perindopril Protection Against Recurrent Stroke Study Collaborative Group. Reductions in the risks of recurrent stroke in patients with and without diabetes: the PROGRESS Trial. Blood Press 2004; 13:7–13.
107 Pitt B, Byington RP, Furberg CD, Hunninghake DB, Mancini GB, Miller ME, Riley W. Effect of amlodipine on the progression of atherosclerosis and the occurrence of clinical events. PREVENT Investigators. Circulation 2000; 102:1503–1510.
108 Telmisartan Randomised AssessmeNt Study in ACE iNtolerant subjects with cardiovascular Disease (TRANSCEND) Investigators. Effects of the angiotensin-receptor blocker telmisartan on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients intolerant to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet
109 Weber MA, Julius S, Kjeldsen SE, Brunner HR, Ekman S, Hansson L, Hua T, Laragh JH, McInnes GT, Mitchell L, Plat F, Schork MA, Smith B, Zanchetti A. Blood pressure dependent and independent effects of antihypertensive treatment on clinical events in the VALUE Trial. Lancet 2004; 363:2049–2051.
110 Mancia G, Messerli FH, Weber MA, Kjeldsen SE, Holzhauer B, Hua TA, Zappe DH, Julius S. Association between the proportion of time under blood pressure (BP) control and cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in the VALUE trial. J Hypertens 2009; 27(Suppl 4):S327.
111 Pepine CJ, Handberg EM, Cooper-DeHoff RM, Marks RG, Kowey P, Messerli FH, Mancia G, Cangiano JL, Garcia-Barreto D, Keltai M, Erdine S, Bristol HA, Kolb HR, Bakris GL, Cohen JD, Parmley WW, INVEST Investigators. A calcium antagonist vs a noncalcium antagonist hypertension treatment strategy for patients with coronary artery disease. The International Verapamil-Trandolapril Study (INVEST): a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2003; 290:2805–2816.
112 Mancia G, Messerli F, Bakris G, Zhou Q, Champion A, Pepine CJ. Blood pressure control and improved cardiovascular outcomes in the International Verapamil SR-Trandolapril Study. Hypertension 2007; 50:299–305.
113 Messerli FH, Mancia G, Conti CR, Hewkin AC, Kupfer S, Champion A, Kolloch R, Benetos A, Pepine CJ. Dogma disputed: can aggressively lowering blood pressure in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease be dangerous? Ann Intern Med 2006; 144:884–893.
114 Bakris GL, Gaxiola E, Messerli FH, Mancia G, Erdine S, Cooper-DeHoff R, Pepine CJ, INVEST Investigators. Clinical outcomes in the diabetes cohort of the INternational VErapamil SR-Trandolapril study. Hypertension 2004; 44:637–642.
115 Sleight P, Redon J, Verdecchia P, Mancia G, Gao P, Fagard R, Schumacher H, Weber M, Böhm M, Williams B, Pogue J, Koon T, Yusuf S, ONTARGET investigators. Prognostic value of blood pressure in patients with high vascular risk in the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial study. J Hypertens 2009; 27:1360–1369.
116 Redon J, Sleight P, Mancia G, Gao O, Verdecchia P, Fagard R, Schumacher H, Weber M, Boehm M, Williams B, Pogue J, Lewington S, Koon T, Yusuf S. Safety and efficacy of aggressive blood pressure lowering among patients with diabetes: subgroup analyses from the ONTARGET trial. J Hypertens 2009; 27(Suppl 4):S16.
117 Berl T, Hunsicker LG, Lewis JB, Pfeffer MA, Porush JG, Rouleau JL, Drury PL, Esmatjes E, Hricik D, Pohl M, Raz I, Vanhille P, Wiegmann TB, Wolfe BM, Locatelli F, Goldhaber SZ, Lewis EJ, Collaborative Study Group. Impact of achieved blood pressure on cardiovascular outcomes in the Irbesartan Diabetic Nephropathy Trial. J Am Soc Nephrol 2005; 16:2170–2179.
118 Pohl MA, Blumenthal S, Cordonnier DJ, De Alvaro F, Deferrari G, Eisner G, Esmatjes E, Gilbert RE, Hunsicker LG, de Faria JB, Mangili R, Moore J Jr, Reisin E, Ritz E, Schernthaner G, Spitalewitz S, Tindall H, Rodby RA, Lewis EJ. Independent and additive impact of blood pressure control and angiotensin II receptor blockade on renal outcomes in the Irbesartan Diabetic Nephropathy Trial: clinical implications and limitations. J Am Soc Nephrol 2005; 16:3027–3037.
119 Okin PM, Devereux RB, Jern S, Kjeldsen SE, Julius S, Nieminen MS, Snapinn S, Harris KE, Aurup P, Edelman JM, Dahlof B, Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension Study Investigations. Regression of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy by losartan versus atenolol: The Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) Study. Circulation 2003; 108:684–690.
120 Verdecchia P, Staessen JA, Angeli F, de Simone G, Achilli A, Ganau A, Mureddu G, Pede S, Maggioni AP, Lucci D, Reboldi G, Cardio-Sis investigators. Usual versus tight control of systolic blood pressure in nondiabetic patients with hypertension (Cardio-Sis): an open-label randomised trial. Lancet 2009; 374:525–533.
121 The ACE Inhibitors in Diabetic Nephropathy Trialist Group. Should all patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria receive angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors? A meta-analysis of individual patient data. Ann Int Med
122 Parving HH, Hommel E, Jensen BR, Hansen HP. Long-term beneficial effect of ACE inhibition on diabetic nephropathy in normotensive type 1 diabetic patients. Kidney Int 2001; 60:228–234.
123 de Galan BE, Perkovic V, Ninomiya T, Pillai A, Patel A, Cass A, Neal B, Poulter N, Harrap S, Mogensen CE, Cooper M, Marre M, Williams B, Hamet P, Mancia G, Woodward M, Glasziou P, Grobbee DE, MacMahon S, Chalmers J, ADVANCE Collaborative Group. Lowering blood pressure reduces renal events in type 2 diabetes. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 20:883–892.
124 Bangalore S, Messerli FH, Wun C, Zuckerman AL, DeMicco D, Kostis JB, LaRosa JC, Treating to New Targets Steering Committee and Investigators. J-Curve revisited: an analysis of the Treating to New Targets (TNT) Trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009; 53:A217.
125 Lewington S, Clarke R, Qizilbash N, Peto R, Collins R, Prospective Studies Collaboration. Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet 2002; 360:1903–1913.
126 Polese A, De Cesare N, Montorsi P, Fabbiocchi F, Guazzi M, Loaldi A, Guazzi MD. Upward shift of the lower range of coronary flow autoregulation in hypertensive patients with hypertrophy of the left ventricle. Circulation 1991; 83:845–853.
127 Boutitie F, Gueyffier F, Pocock S, Fagard R, Boissel JP. J-shaped relationship between blood pressure and mortality in hypertensive patients: new insights from a meta-analysis of individual-patient data. Ann Intern Med 2002; 136:438–448.
128 Buse JB, Bigger JT, Byington RP, Cooper LS, Cushman WC, Friedewald WT, Genuth S, Gerstein HC, Ginsberg HN, Goff DC Jr, Grimm RH Jr, Margolis KL, Probstfield JL, Simons-Morton DG, Sullivan MD. Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial: design and methods. Am J Cardiol 2007; 99(12A):21i–33i.
129 Julius S, Nesbitt SD, Egan BM, Weber MA, Michelson EL, Kaciroti N, Black HR, Grimm RH Jr, Messerli FH, Oparil S, Schork MA, Trial of Preventing Hypertension (TROPHY) Study Investigators. Feasibility of treating prehypertension with an angiotensin-receptor blocker. N Engl J Med 2006; 354:1685–1697.
130 Lüders S, Schrader J, Berger J, Unger T, Zidek W, Böhm M, Middeke M, Motz W, Lübcke C, Gansz A, Brokamp L, Schmieder RE, Trenkwalder P, Haller H, Dominiak P. The PHARAO study: prevention of hypertension with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril in patients with high-normal blood pressure: a prospective, randomized, controlled prevention trial of the German Hypertension League. J Hypertens 2008; 26:1487–1496.
131 Laurent S, Briet M, Boutouyrie P. Large/small artery cross talk and recent morbidity-mortality trials in hypertension. Hypertension 2009; 54:388–392.
132 Staessen JA, Thijis L, Fagard R, Celis H, Birkenhäger WH, Bulpitt CJ, de Leeuw PW, Fletcher AE, Forette F, Leonetti G, McCormack P, Nachev C, O'Brien E, Rodicio JL, Rosenfeld J, Sarti C, Tuomilehto J, Webster J, Yodfat Y, Zanchetti A, Systolic Hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) Trial Investigators. Effects of immediate versus delayed antihypertensive therapy on outcome in the Systolic Hypertension in Europe Trial. J Hypertens 2004; 22:847–857.
133 Kostis JB, Wilson AC, Freudenberger RS, Cosgrove NM, Pressel SL, Davis BR, SHEP Collaborative Research Group. Long-term effect of diuretic-based therapy on fatal outcomes in subjects with isolated systolic hypertension with and without diabetes. Am J Cardiol 2005; 95:29–35.
134 Gaede P, Lund-Andersen H, Parving HH, Pederson O. Effect of a multifactorial intervention on mortality in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008; 358:580–591.
135 Holman RR, Paul SK, Bethel MA, Matthews DR, Neil HA. 10-years follow-up of intensive glucose control in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008; 359:1577–1589.
136 Guidelines Committee. 2003 European Society of Hypertension-European Society of Cardiology guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. J Hypertens
137 Jick H, Slone D, Shapiro S, Heinonen OP, Hartz SC, Miettinen OS, Vessey MP, Lawson DH, Miller RR, Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program. Reserpine and breast cancer. Lancet 1974; II:669–677.
138 Psaty BM, Heckbert SR, Koepsell TD, Siscovick DS, Raghunathan TE, Weiss NS, Rosendaal FR, Lemaitre RN, Smith NL, Wahl PW, Wagner EH, Furberg CD. The risk of myocardial infarction associated with antihypertensive drug therapies. JAMA 1995; 274:620–625.
139 Pahor M, Guralnik JM, Corti MC, Foley DJ, Carbonin P. Long-term survival and uses of antihypertensive medications in older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc 1995; 49:1191–1197.
140 Lindholm LH, Carlberg B, Samuelsson O. Should beta blockers remain first choice in the treatment of primary hypertension? A meta-analysis. Lancet 2005; 366:1545–1553.
141 Hypertension: management of hypertension in adults in primary care NICE/BHS; 2006. www.nice.org.uk/CG034
142 Opie LH. Beta-blockade should not be among several choices for initial therapy of hypertension. J Hypertens 2008; 26:161–163.
143 Messerli FH, Bangalore S, Julius S. Risk/benefit assessment of beta-blockers and diuretics precludes their use for first-line therapy in hypertension. Circulation 2008; 117:2706–2715.
144 Mancia G. Prevention of risk factors: beta-blockade and hypertension. Eur Heart J Suppl 2009; 11:A3–A8.
145 Bangalore S, Sawhney S, Messerli FH. Relation of beta-blocker-induced heart rate lowering and cardioprotection in hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008; 52:1482–1489.
146 Cucherat M. Quantitative relationship between resting heart rate reduction and magnitude of clinical benefits in postmyocardial infarction: a meta-regression of randomized clinical trials. Eur Heart J 2007; 28:3012–3019.
147 Houghton T, Freemantle N, Cleland JG. Are beta-blockers effective in patients who develop heart failure soon after myocardial infarction? A meta-regression analysis of randomised trials. Eur J Heart Fail 2000; 2:333–340.
148 Law MR, Morris JK, Wald NJ. Use of blood pressure lowering drugs in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of 147 randomised trials in the context of expectations from prospective epidemiological studies. BMJ 2009; 338:1665–1683.
149 Holman RR, Paul SK, Bethel MA, Neil HA, Matthews DR. Long-term follow-up after tight control of blood pressure in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008; 359:1565–1576.
150 Blackburn DF, Lamb DA, Eurich DT, Johnson JA, Wilson TW, Dobson RT, Blackburn JL. Atenolol as initial antihypertensive therapy: an observational study comparing first-line agents. J Hypertens 2007; 25:1499–1505.
151 Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration. Effects of different blood-pressure-lowering regimens on major cardiovascular events: results of prospectively-designed overviews of randomised trials. Lancet
152 Mancia G, Zanchetti A. Choice of antihypertensive drugs in the European Society of Hypertension-European Society of Cardiology guidelines: specific indications rather than ranking for general usage. J Hypertens 2008; 26:164–168.
153 Wald DS, Law M, Morris JK, Bestwick JP, Wald NJ. Combination therapy versus monotherapy in reducing blood pressure: meta-analysis on 11,000 participants from 42 trials. Am J Med 2009; 122:290–300.
154 Williams B, Lacy PS, Thom SM, Cruickshank K, Stanton A, Collier D, Hughes AD, Thurston H, O'Rourke M, CAFE Investigators; Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial Investigators; CAFE Steering Committee and Writing Committee. Differential impact of blood pressure-lowering drugs on central aortic pressure and clinical outcomes: principal results of the Conduit Artery Function Evaluation (CAFE) study. Circulation 2006; 113:1213–1225.
155 Dart AM, Cameron JD, Gatzka CD, Willson K, Liang YL, Berry KL, Wing LM, Reid CM, Ryan P, Beilin LJ, Jennings GL, Johnston CI, McNeil JJ, Macdonald GJ, Morgan TO, West MJ, Kingwell BA. Similar effects of treatment on central and brachial blood pressures in older hypertensive subjects in the Second Australian National Blood Pressure Trial. Hypertension 2007; 49:1242–1247.
156 Mitchell GF, Conlin PR, Dunlap ME, Lacourcière Y, Arnold JM, Ogilvie RI, Neutel J, Izzo JL Jr, Pfeffer MA. Aortic diameter, wall stiffness, and wave reflection in systolic hypertension. Hypertension 2008; 51:105–111.
157 Elliott WJ, Meyer PM. Incident diabetes in clinical trials of antihypertensive drugs: a network meta-analysis. Lancet 2007; 369:201–207.
158 Mancia G, Grassi G, Zanchetti A. New-onset diabetes and antihypertensive drugs. J Hypertens 2006; 24:3–10.
159 Bangalore S, Parkar S, Grossman E, Messerli FH. A meta-analysis of 94,492 patients with hypertension treated with beta blockers to determine the risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus. Am J Cardiol 2007; 100:1254–1262.
160 Zanchetti A, Hennig M, Baurecht H, Tang R, Cuspidi C, Carugo S, Mancia G. Prevalence and incidence of the metabolic syndrome in the European Lacidipine Study on Atherosclerosis (ELSA) and its relation with carotid intima-media thickness. J Hypertens 2007; 25:2463–2470.
161 Cutler JA, Davis BR. Thiazide-type diuretics and beta-adrenergic blockers as first-line drug treatments for hypertension. Circulation 2008; 117:2691–2704.
162 Barr EL, Zimmet PZ, Welborn TA, Jolley D, Magliano DJ, Dunstan DW, Cameron AJ, Dwyer T, Taylor HR, Tonkin AM, Wong TY, McNeil J, Shaw JE. Risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in individuals with diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab). Circulation 2007; 116:151–157.
163 Mozaffarian D, Marfisi R, Levantesi G, Silletta MG, Tavazzi L, Tognoni G, Valagussa F, Marchioli R. Incidence of new-onset diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in patients with recent myocardial infarction and the effect of clinical and lifestyle risk factors. Lancet 2007; 370:667–675.
164 Alderman MH, Cohen H, Madhavan S. Diabetes and cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients. Hypertension 1999; 33:1130–1134.
165 Klingbeil AU, Schneider M, Martus P, Messerli FH, Schmieder RE. A meta-analysis of the effects of treatment on left ventricular mass in essential hypertension. Am J Med 2003; 115:41–46.
166 Zanchetti A, Bond MG, Hennig M, Neiss A, Mancia G, Dal Palu C, Hansson L, Magnani B, Rahn KH, Reid JL, Rodicio J, Safar M, Eckes L, Rizzini P, European Lacidipine Study on Atherosclerosis investigators. Calcium antagonist lacidipine slows down progression of asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis: principal results of the European Lacidipine Study on Atherosclerosis (ELSA) – a randomized, double-blind, long-term trial. Circulation 2002; 106:2422–2427.
167 Schiffrin EL, Deng LY. Comparison of effects of angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibition and beta-blockade for 2 years on function of small arteries from hypertensive patients. Hypertension 1995; 25(4 Pt 2):699–703.
168 Schiffrin EL, Pu Q, Park JB. Effect of amlodipine compared to atenolol on small arteries of previously untreated essential hypertensive patients. Am J Hypertens 2002; 15:105–110.
169 Smith RD, Yokoyama H, Averill DB, Schiffrin EL, Ferrario CM. Reversal of vascular hypertrophy in hypertensive patients through blockade of angiotensin II receptors. J Am Soc Hypertens 2008; 2:165–172.
170 Boutouyrie P, Bussy C, Hayoz D, Hengstler J, Dartois N, Laloux B, Brunner H, Laurent S. Local pulse pressure and regression of arterial wall hypertrophy during long term antihypertensive treatment. Circulation 2000; 101:2601–2606.
171 Zanchetti A. Clinical pharmacodynamics of nebivolol: new evidence of nitric oxide-mediated vasodilating activity and peculiar haemodynamic properties in hypertensive patients. Blood Press 2004; 13(Suppl 1):18–33.
172 Dhakam Z, Yasmin, McEniery CM, Burton T, Brown MJ, Wilkinson IB. A comparison of atenolol and nebivolol in isolated systolic hypertension. J Hypertens
173 Bakris GL, Fonseca V, Katholi RE, McGill JB, Messerli FH, Phillips RA, Raskin P, Wright JT Jr, Oakes R, Lukas MA, Anderson KM, Bell DS, GEMINI Investigators. Metabolic effects of carvedilol vs metoprolol in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004; 292:2227–2236.
174 Celik T, Iyisoy A, Kursaklioglu H, Kardesoglu E, Kilic S, Turhan H, Yilmaz MI, Ozcan O, Yaman H, Isik E, Fici F. Comparative effects of nebivolol and metoprolol on oxidative stress, insulin resistance, plasma adiponectin and soluble P-selectin levels in hypertensive patients. J Hypertens 2006; 24:591–596.
175 Kaiser T, Heise T, Nosek L, Eckers U, Sawicki PT. Influence of nebivolol and enalapril on metabolic parameters and arterial stiffness in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients. J Hypertens 2006; 24:1397–1403.
176 Dickstein K, Cohen-Solal A, Filippatos G, McMurray JJ, Ponikowski P, Poole-Wilson PA, Strömberg A, van Veldhuisen DJ, Atar D, Hoes AW, Keren A, Mebazaa A, Nieminen M, Priori SG, Swedberg K, Vahanian A, Camm J, De Caterina R, Dean V, Dickstein K, Filippatos G, Funck-Brentano C, Hellemans I, Kristensen SD, McGregor K, Sechtem U, Silber S, Tendera M, Widimsky P, Zamorano JL. ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2008: the Task Force for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2008 of the European Society of Cardiology. Developed in collaboration with the Heart Failure Association of the ESC (HFA) and endorsed by the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM). Eur J Heart Fail 2008; 10:933–989.
177 Torp-Pedersen C, Metra M, Charlesworth A, Spark P, Lukas MA, Poole-Wilson PA, Swedberg K, Cleland JG, Di Lenarda A, Remme WJ, Scherhag A, COMET investigators. Effects of metoprolol and carvedilol on preexisting and new onset diabetes in patients with chronic heart failure: data from the Carvedilol Or Metoprolol European Trial (COMET). Heart 2007; 93:968–973.
178 Agabiti Rosei E, Rizzoni D. Metabolic profile of nebivolol, a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist with unique characteristics. Drugs 2007; 67:1097–1107.
179 Galderisi M, D'Enrico A, Sidiropulos M, Innelli P, deDivitiis O, de Simone G. Nebivolol induces parallel improvement of left ventricular filling pressure and coronary flow reserve in uncomplicated arterial hypertension. J Hypertens 2009; 27:2106–2113.
180 Simon A, Gariépy J, Moyse D, Levenson J. Differential effects of nifedipine and co-amilozide on the progression of early carotid wall changes. Circulation 2001; 103:2949–2954.
181 Zanchetti A, Crepaldi G, Bond MG, Gallus G, Veglia F, Mancia G, Ventura A, Baggio G, Sampieri L, Rubba P, Sperti G, Magni A, on behalf of PHYLLIS Investigators. Different effects of antihypertensive regimens based on fosinopril or hydrochlorothiazide with or without lipid lowering by pravastatin on progression of asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis: principal results of PHYLLIS: a randomized double-blind trial. Stroke 2004; 35:2807–2812.
182 Corrao G, Zambon A, Parodi A, Poluzzi E, Baldi I, Merlino L, Cesana G, Mancia G. Discontinuation of and changes in drug therapy for hypertension among newly-treated patients: a population-based study in Italy. J Hypertens 2008; 26:819–824.
183 Burke TA, Sturkenboom MC, Lu SE, Wentworth CE, Lin Y, Rhoads GG. Discontinuation of antihypertensive drugs among newly diagnosed hypertensive patients in UK general practice. J Hypertens 2006; 24:1193–1200.
184 Wright GM, Musini VM. First-line drugs for hypertension. Cochrane Library
185 Jamerson K, Weber MA, Bakris GL, Dahlöf B, Pitt B, Shi V, Hester A, Gupte J, Gatlin M, Velazquez EJ, ACCOMPLISH Trial Investigators. Benazepril plus amlodipine or hydrochlorothiazide for hypertension in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med 2008; 359:2417–2428.
186 Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration. Effects of different blood pressure-lowering regimens on major cardiovascular events in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus: results of prospectively designed overviews of randomized trials. Arch Intern Med
187 Verdecchia P, Reboldi G, Angeli F, Gattobigio R, Bentivoglio M, Thijs L, Staessen JA, Porcellati C. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and calcium channel blockers for coronary heart disease and stroke prevention. Hypertension 2005; 46:386–392.
188 Boutitie F, Oprisiu R, Achard JM, Mazouz H, Wang J, Messerli FH, Gueyffier F, Fournier A. Does a change in angiotensin II formation caused by antihypertensive drugs affect the risk of stroke? A meta-analysis of trials according to treatment with potentially different effects on angiotensin II. J Hypertens 2007; 25:1543–1553.
189 Verma S, Strauss M. Angiotensin receptor blockers and myocardial infarction. BMJ 2004; 329:1248–1249.
190 Strauss MH, Hall AS. Angiotensin receptor blockers may increase risk of myocardial infarction: unraveling the ARB-MI paradox. Circulation 2006; 114:838–854.
191 ONTARGET Investigators, Yusuf S, Teo KK, Pogue J, Dyal L, Copland I, Schumacher H, Dagenais G, Sleight P, Anderson C. Telmisartan, ramipril, or both in patients at high risk for vascular events. N Engl J Med
192 Reboldi G, Angeli F, Cavallini C, Gentile G, Mancia G, Verdecchia P. Comparison between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers on the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and death: a meta-analysis. J Hypertens 2008; 26:1282–1289.
193 Volpe M, Tocci G, Sciarretta S, Verdecchia P, Trimarco B, Mancia G. Angiotensin II receptor blockers and myocardial infarction: an updated analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Hypertens 2009; 27:941–946.
194 Schupp M, Janke J, Clasen R, Unger T, Kintscher U. Angiotensin type 1 receptor blockers induce peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activity. Circulation 2004; 109:2054–2057.
195 The ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group. Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs diuretic: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering treatment to prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). JAMA
196 Costanzo P, Perrone-Filardi P, Petretta M, Marciano C, Vassallo E, Gargiulo P, Paolillo S, Petretta A, Chiariello M. Calcium channel blockers and cardiovascular outcomes: a meta-analysis of 175,634 patients. J Hypertens 2009; 27:1136–1151.
197 Dahlöf B, Sever PS, Poulter NR, Wedel H, Beevers DG, Caulfield M, Collins R, Kjeldsen SE, Kristinsson A, McInnes GT, Mehlsen J, Nieminen M, O'Brien E, Ostergren J, ASCOT Investigators. Prevention of cardiovascular events with an antihypertensive regimen of amlodipine adding perindopril as required versus atenolol adding bendroflumethiazide as required, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Blood Pressure Lowering Arm (ASCOT-BPLA): a multicentre randomized controlled trial. Lancet 2005; 366:895–906.
198 Lubsen J, Wagener G, Kirwan BA, de Brouwer S, Poole-Wilson PA, ACTION (A Coronary disease Trial Investigating Outcome with Nifedipine GITS) investigators. Effect of long-acting nifedipine on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in patients with symptomatic stable angina and hypertension: the ACTION trial. J Hypertens 2005; 23:641–648.
199 Fagard RH. Benefits and safety of long-acting calcium antagonists in coronary artery disease: the ACTION Trial. J Hypertens 2005; 23:489–491.
200 Sutton GC, Erik Otterstad J, Kirwan BA, Vokó Z, de Brouwer S, Lubsen J, Poole-Wilson PA, ACTION (A Coronary disease Trial Investigating Outcome with Nifedipine GITS) investigators. The development of heart failure in patients with stable angina pectoris. Eur J Heart Fail 2007; 9:234–242.
201 Stanton A. Therapeutic potential of renin inhibitors in the management of cardiovascular disorders. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2003; 3:389–394.
202 Azizi M, Webb R, Nussberger J, Hollenberg NK. Renin inhibition with aliskiren: where are we now, and where are we going? J Hypertens 2006; 24:243–256.
203 O'Brien E, Barton J, Nussberger J, Mulcahy D, Jensen C, Dicker P, Stanton A. Aliskiren reduces blood pressure and suppresses plasma renin activity in combination with a thiazide diuretic, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, or an angiotensin receptor blocker. Hypertension 2007; 49:276–284.
204 Villamil A, Chrysant SG, Calhoun D, Schober B, Hsu H, Matrisciano-Dimichino L, Zhang J. Renin inhibition with aliskiren provides additive antihypertensive efficacy when used in combination with hydrochlorothiazide. J Hypertens 2007; 25:217–226.
205 Littlejohn TW 3rd, Trenkwalder P, Hollanders G, Zhao Y, Liao W. Long-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of combination therapy with aliskiren and amlodipine in patients with hypertension. Curr Med Res Opin 2009; 25:951–959.
206 Parving HH, Persson F, Lewis JB, Lewis EJ, Hollenberg NK, AVOID Study Investigators. Aliskiren combined with losartan in type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. N Engl J Med 2008; 358:2433–2446.
207 Solomon SD, Appelbaum E, Manning WJ, Verma A, Berglund T, Lukashevich V, Cherif Papst C, Smith BA, Dahlöf B, Aliskiren in Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (ALLAY) Trial Investigators. Effect of the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren, the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan, or both on left ventricular mass in patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. Circulation 2009; 119:530–537.
208 Seed A, Gardner R, McMurray J, Hillier C, Murdoch D, MacFadyen R, Bobillier A, Mann J, McDonagh T. Neurohumoral effects of the new orally active renin inhibitor, aliskiren, in chronic heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail 2007; 9:1120–1127.
209 Gardner RS, Ozalp F, Murday AJ, Robb SD, McDonagh TA. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide. A new gold standard in predicting mortality in patients with advanced heart failure. Eur Heart J 2003; 24:1735–1743.
210 Weber MA, Black H, Bakris G, Krum H, Linas S, Weiss R, Linseman JV, Wiens BL, Warren MS, Lindholm LH. A selective endothelin-receptor antagonist to reduce blood pressure in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Lancet
211 Sarafidis PA, Bakris GL. Resistant hypertension: an overview of evaluation and treatment. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008; 52:1749–1757.
212 Report of the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. A cooperative study. JAMA
213 Arterial hypertension. Report of a WHO expert committee. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser
214 Amar J, Vaur L, Perret M, Bailleau C, Etienne S, Chamontin B, PRATIK study investigators. Hypertension in high-risk patients: beware of the underuse of effective combination therapy (results of the PRATIK study). J Hypertens 2002; 20:779–784.
215 Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, Muntner P, Whelton PK, He J. Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide data. Lancet 2005; 365:217–223.
216 Nicotra F, Wettermark B, Sturkenboom MC, Parodi A, Bellocco R, Eckbom A, Merlino L, Leimanis A, Mancia G, Fored M, Corrao G. Management of antihypertensive drugs in three European countries. J Hypertens 2009; 27:1917–1922.
217 Ambrosioni E, Leonetti G, Pessina AC, Rappelli A, Trimarco B, Zanchetti A. Patterns of hypertension management in Italy: results of a pharmacoepidemiological survey on antihypertensive therapy. Scientific Committee of the Italian Pharmacoepidemiological Survey on Antihypertensive Therapy. J Hypertens 2000; 18:1691–1699.
218 Bakris G, Molitch M, Hewkin A, Kipnes M, Sarafidis P, Fakouhi K, Bacher P, Sowers J, STAR Investigators. Differences in glucose tolerance between fixed-dose antihypertensive drug combinations in people with metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 2006; 29:2592–2597.
219 Dahlof B, Devereux RB, Kjeldsen SE, Julius S, Beevers G, de Faire U, Dahlöf B, Fyhrquist F, Ibsen H, Kristiansson K, Lederballe-Pedersen O, Lindholm LH, Nieminen MS, Omvik P, Oparil S, Wedel H, LIFE Study Group. LIFE Study Group. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study (LIFE): a randomised trial against atenolol. Lancet 2002; 359:995–1003.
220 Lithell H, Hansson L, Skoog I, Elmfeldt D, Hofman A, Olofsson B, Trenkwalder P, Zanchetti A. The Study on Cognition and Prognosis in the Elderly (SCOPE): Outcomes in patients not receiving add-on therapy after randomization. J Hypertens 2004; 22:1605–1612.
221 Kaneshiro Y, Ichihara A, Sakoda M, Kurauchi-Mito A, Kinouchi K, Itoh H. Add-on benefits of amlodipine and thiazide in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease stage 1/2 patients treated with valsartan. Kidney Blood Press Res 2009; 32:51–58.
222 Ichihara A, Kaneshiro Y, Takemitsu T, Sakoda M. Effects of amlodipine and valsartan on vascular damage and ambulatory blood pressure in untreated hypertensive patients. J Hum Hypertens 2006; 20:787–794.
223 Sanford M, Keam SJ. Olmesartan medoxomil/amlodipine. Drugs 2009; 69:717–729.
224 Flack JM, Hilkert R. Single-pill combination of amlodipine and valsartan in the management of hypertension. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2009; 10:1979–1994.
225 Julius S, Kjeldsen SE, Weber M, Brunner HR, Ekman S, Hansson L, Hua T, Laragh J, McInnes GT, Mitchell L, Plat F, Schork A, Smith B, Zanchetti A. Outcomes in hypertensive patients at high cardiovascular risk treated with regimens based on valsartan or amlodipine: the VALUE randomised trial. Lancet 2004; 363:2022–2031.
226 Ferrari P, Marti HP, Pfister M, Frey FJ. Additive antiproteinuric effect of combined ACE inhibition and angiotensin II receptor blockade. J Hypertens 2002; 20:125–130.
227 Kunz R, Friedrich C, Wolbers M, Mann JF. Meta-analysis: effect of monotherapy and combination therapy with inhibitors of the renin angiotensin system on proteinuria in renal disease. Ann Intern Med 2008; 148:30–48.
228 Eijkelkamp WB, Zhang Z, Remuzzi G, Parving HH, Cooper ME, Keane WF, Shahinfar S, Gleim GW, Weir MR, Brenner BM, de Zeeuw D. Albuminuria is a target for renoprotective therapy independent from blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy: post hoc analysis from the Reduction of Endpoints in NIDDM with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) trial. J Am Soc Nephrol 2007; 18:1540–1546.
229 Nakao N, Yoshimura A, Morita H, Takada M, Kayano T, Ideura T. Combination treatment of angiotensin-II receptor blocker and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor in nondiabetic renal disease (COOPERATE): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2003; 361:117–124.
230 Vogt L, Laverman GD, de Zeeuw D, Navis G. The COOPERATE trial. Lancet 2003; 361:1055–1056.
231 Kunz R, Wolbers M, Glass T, Mann JF. The COOPERATE trial: a letter of concern. Lancet 2008; 371:1575–1576.
232 Pfeffer MA, McMurray JJ, Velazquez EJ, Rouleau JL, Kober L, Maggioni AP, Solomon SD, Swedberg K, Van de Werf F, White H, Leimberger JD, Henis M, Edwards S, Zelenkofske S, Sellers MA, Califf RM, Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial Investigators. Valsartan, captopril, or both in myocardial infarction complicated by heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, or both. N Engl J Med 2003; 349:1893–1896.
233 Cohn JN, Tognoni G, Valsartan Heart Failure Trial Investigators. A randomized trial of the angiotensin-receptor blocker valsartan in chronic heart failure. N Engl J Med 2001; 345:1667–1675.
234 McMurray JJ, Ostergren J, Swedberg K, Granger CB, Held P, Michelson EL, Olofsson B, Yusuf S, Pfeffer MA, CHARM Investigators and Committees. Effects of candesartan in patients with chronic heart failure and reduced left-ventricular systolic function taking angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors: the CHARM-Added trial. Lancet 2003; 362:767–771.
235 Bangalore S, Kamalakkannan G, Parkar S, Messerli FH. Fixed-dose combinations improve medication compliance: a meta-analysis. Am J Med 2007; 120:713–719.
236 Gueyffier F, Bulpitt C, Boissel JP, Schron E, Ekbom T, Fagard R, Casiglia E, Kerlikowske K, Coope J. Antihypertensive drugs in very old people: a subgroup meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. INDANA Group. Lancet 1999; 353:793–796.
237 Bulpitt CJ, Beckett NS, Cooke J, Dumitrascu DL, Gil-Extremera B, Nachev C, Nunes M, Peters R, Staessen JA, Thijs L. Results of the pilot study for the Hypertension in the Very Elderly Trial. J Hypertens 2003; 21:2409–2417.
238 Brown CM, Hecht MJ, Weih A, Neundörfer B, Hilz MJ. Effects of age on the cardiac and vascular limbs of the arterial baroreflex. Eur J Clin Invest 2003; 33:10–16.
239 Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration. Effects of different regimens to lower blood pressure on major cardiovascular events in older and younger adults: meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ
240 Mancia G, Grassi G. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure control in antihypertensive drug trials. J Hypertens 2002; 20:1461–1464.
241 Atkins RC, Briganti EM, Lewis JB, Hunsicker LG, Braden G, Champion de Crespigny PJ, DeFerrari G, Drury P, Locatelli F, Wiegmann TB, Lewis EJ. Proteinuria reduction and progression to renal failure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and overt nephropathy. Am J Kidney Dis 2005; 45:281–287.
242 Viberti G, Wheeldon NM, MicroAlbuminuria Reduction With VALsartan (MARVAL) Study Investigators. Microalbuminuria reduction with valsartan in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a blood pressure-independent effect. Circulation 2002; 106:672–678.
243 Estacio RO, Coll JR, Tran ZV, Schrier RW. Effect of intensive blood pressure control with valsartan on urinary albumin excretion in normotensive patients with type 2 diabetes. Am J Hypertens 2006; 19:1241–1248.
244 Adler AI, Stratton IM, Neil HA, Yudkin JS, Matthews DR, Cull CA, Wright AD, Turner RC, Holman RR. Association of systolic blood pressure with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 36): prospective observational study. BMJ 2000; 321:412–419.
245 Watkins PJ, Edmonds ME. Diabetic autonomic failure. In: Mathias CJ, Bannister R, editors. Autonomic failure: a textbook of clinical disorders of the autonomic nervous system. Oxford: University Press; 1999. pp. 378–386.
246 Matthews DR, Stratton IM, Aldington SJ, Holman RR, Kohner EM, UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Risks of progression of retinopathy and vision loss related to tight blood pressure control in type 2 diabetes mellitus: UKPDS 69. Arch Ophthalmol 2004; 122:1631–1640.
247 Klein R, Klein BE, Moss SE, Davis MD, DeMets DL. The Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. IX: Four-year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy when age at diagnosis is less than 30 years. Arch Ophthalmol 1989; 107:237–243.
248 Gaede P, Vedel P, Larsen N, Jensen GV, Parving HH, Pedersen O. Multifactorial intervention and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2003; 348:383–393.
249 Beulens JW, Patel A, Vingerling JR, Cruickshank JK, Hughes AD, Stanton A, Lu J, McG Thom SA, Grobbee DE, Stolk RP, on behalf of the AdRem* project team and ADVANCE management committee. Effects of blood pressure lowering and intensive glucose control on the incidence and progression of retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomised controlled trial. Diabetologia
250 Chaturvedi N, Porta M, Klein R, Orchard T, Fuller J, Parving HH, Bilous R, Sjølie AK, DIRECT Programme Study Group. Effect of candesartan on prevention (DIRECT-Prevent 1) and progression (DIRECT-Protect 1) of retinopathy in type 1 diabetes: randomised, placebo-controlled trials. Lancet 2008; 372:1394–1402.
251 UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34). Lancet
252 Mann JF, Schmieder RE, Dyal L, McQueen MJ, Schumacher H, Pogue J, Wang X, Probstfield JL, Avezum A, Cardona-Munoz E, Dagenais GR, Diaz R, Fodor G, Maillon JM, Rydén L, Yu CM, Teo KK, Yusuf S, TRANSCEND (Telmisartan Randomised Assessment Study in ACE Intolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease) Investigators. Effect of telmisartan on renal outcomes: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2009; 151:1–10.
253 Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI). K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines on hypertension and antihypertensive agents in chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis
(5 Suppl 1):S1–S290.
254 Heerspink HJ, Ninomiya T, Zoungas S, de Zeeuw D, Grobbee DE, Jardine MJ, Gallagher M, Roberts MA, Cass A, Neal B, Perkovic V. Effect of lowering blood pressure on cardiovascular events and mortality in patients on dialysis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Lancet 2009; 373:1009–1015.
255 PATS Collaborating Group. Poststroke antihypertensive treatment study. A preliminary result. Chin Med J (Engl)
256 Schrader J, Lüders S, Kulschewski A, Berger J, Zidek W, Treib J, Einhäupl K, Diener HC, Dominiak P. The ACCESS Study: evaluation of Acute Candesartan Cilexetil Therapy in Stroke Survivors. Stroke 2003; 34:1699–1703.
257 Potter JF, Robinson TG, Ford GA, Mistri A, James M, Chernova J, Jagger C. Controlling hypertension and hypothension immediately poststroke (CHHIPS): a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot trial. Lancet Neurol 2009; 8:48–56.
258 Peters R, Beckett N, Forette F, Tuomilehto J, Clarke R, Ritchie C, Waldman A, Walton I, Poulter R, Ma S, Comsa M, Burch L, Fletcher A, Bulpitt C. Incident dementia and blood pressure lowering in the Hypertension in the Very Elderly Trial cognitive function assessment (HYVET-COG): a double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Lancet Neurol 2008; 7:683–689.
259 Massie BM, Carson PE, McMurray JJ, Komajda M, McKelvie R, Zile MR, Anderson S, Donovan M, Iverson E, Staiger C, Ptaszynska A, I-PRESERVE Investigators. Irbesartan in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction. N Engl J Med 2008; 359:2456–2467.
260 Vermes E, Tardif JC, Bourassa MG, Racine N, Levesque S, White M, Guerra PG, Ducharme A. Enalapril decreases the incidence of atrial fibrillation in patients with left ventricular dysfunction: insight from the Studies Of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) trials. Circulation 2003; 17:2926–2931.
261 Ducharme A, Swedberg K, Pfeffer MA, Cohen-Solal A, Granger CB, Maggioni AP, Michelson EL, McMurray JJ, Olsson L, Rouleau JL, Young JB, Olofsson B, Puu M, Yusuf S. Prevention of atrial fibrillation in patients with symptomatic chronic heart failure by candesartan in the Candesartan in Heart failure: Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity (CHARM) program. Am Heart J 2006; 152:86–92.
262 Wachtell K, Lehto M, Gerdts E, Olsen MH, Hornestam B, Dahlöf BH, Julius S, Kjeldsen SE, Lindholm LH, Nieminen MS, Devereux RB. Angiotensin II receptor blockade reduces new-onset atrial fibrillation and subsequent stroke compared to atenolol: the Losartan Intervention For End Point Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 45:712–719.
263 Schmieder RE, Kjeldsen SE, Julius S, McInnes GT, Zanchetti A, Hua TA, VALUE Trial Group. Reduced incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation with angiotensin II receptor blockade: the VALUE trial. J Hypertens 2008; 26:403–411.
264 Okin PM, Wachtell K, Devereux RB, Harris KE, Jern S, Kjeldsen SE, Julius S, Lindholm LH, Nieminen MS, Edelman JM, Hille DA, Dahlof B. Regression of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy and decreased incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation in patients with hypertension. JAMA 2006; 296:1242–1248.
265 Madrid AH, Bueno MG, Rebollo JM, Marín I, Peña G, Bernal E, Rodriguez A, Cano L, Cano JM, Cabeza P, Moro C. Use of irbesartan to maintain sinus rhythm in patients with long-lasting persistent atrial fibrillation: a prospective and randomized study. Circulation 2002; 106:331–336.
266 Fogari R, Mugellini A, Destro M, Corradi L, Zoppi A, Fogari E, Rinaldi A. Losartan and prevention of atrial fibrillation recurrence in hypertensive patients. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2006; 47:46–50.
267 Ueng KC, Tsai TP, Yu WC, Tsai CF, Lin MC, Chan KC, Chen CY, Wu DJ, Lin CS, Chen SA. Use of enalapril to facilitate sinus rhythm maintenance after external cardioversion of long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation. Results of a prospective and controlled study. Eur Heart J 2003; 24:2090–2098.
268 Tveit A, Grundvold I, Olufsen M, Seljeflot I, Abdelnoor M, Arnesen H, Smith P. Candesartan in the prevention of relapsing atrial fibrillation. Int J Cardiol 2007; 120:85–91.
269 GISSI-AF Investigators. Valsartan for prevention of recurrent atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med
270 Nasr IA, Bouzamondo A, Hulot JS, Dubourg O, Le Heuzey JY, Lechat P. Prevention of atrial fibrillation onset by beta-blocker treatment in heart failure: a meta-analysis. Eur Heart J 2007; 28:457–462.
271 Turnbull F, Woodward M, Neal B, Barzi F, Ninomiya T, Chalmers J, Perkovic V, Li N, MacMahon S, Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration. Do men and women respond differently to blood pressure-lowering treatment? Results of prospectively designed overviews of randomized trials. Eur Heart J 2008; 29:2669–2680.
272 Scranton RE, Lawler E, Botteman M, Chittamooru S, Gagnon D, Lew R, Harnett J, Gaziano JM. Effect of treating erectile dysfunction on management of systolic hypertension. Am J Cardiol 2007; 100:552–553.
273 Manolis A, Doumas M. Sexual dysfunction: the ‘prima ballerina’ of hypertension-related quality-of-life complications. J Hypertens 2008; 26:2074–2084.
274 Sever PS, Dahlöf B, Poulter NR, Wedel H, Beevers G, Caulfield M, Collins R, Kjeldsen SE, Kristinsson A, McInnes GT, Mehlsen J, Nieminen M, O'Brien E, Ostergren J, the ASCOT investigators. Prevention of coronary and stroke events with atorvastatin in hypertensive patients who have average or lower-than-average cholesterol concentrations, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial – Lipid Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA): a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2003; 361:1149–1158.
275 ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group. The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial. Major outcomes in moderately hypercholesterolemic, hypertensive patients randomized to pravastatin vs usual care: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT-LLT). JAMA
276 Sever P, Dahlöf B, Poulter N, Wedel H, Beevers G, Caulfield M, Collins R, Kjeldsen S, Kristinsson A, McInnes G, Mehlsen J, Nieminem M, O'Brien E, Ostergren J, ASCOT Steering Committee Memberset. Potential synergy between lipid-lowering and blood-pressure-lowering in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial. Eur Heart J 2006; 27:2982–2988.
277 Sever PS, Poulter NR, Dahlof B, Wedel H, on behalf of the ASCOT Investigators. Antihypertensive therapy and the benefits of atorvastatin in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial: lipid-lowering arm extension. J Hypertens 2009; 27:947–954.
278 Ridker PM, Danielson E, Fonseca FA, Genest J, Gotto AM Jr, Kastelein JJ, Koenig W, Libby P, Lorenzatti AJ, MacFadyen JG, Nordestgaard BG, Shepherd J, Willerson JT, Glynn RJ, for the JUPITER Study Group. Rosuvastatin to prevent vascular events in men and women with elevated C-reactive protein. N Engl J Med 2008; 359:2195–2207.
279 Antithrombotic Trialists' (ATT) Collaboration. Aspirin in the primary and secondary prevention of vascular disease: collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised trials. Lancet
280 Zanchetti A, Hansson L, Dahlöf B, Julius S, Ménard J, Warnold I, Wedel H. Benefit and harm of low-dose aspirin in well treated hypertensives at different baseline cardiovascular risk. J Hypertens 2002; 20:2301–2307.
281 Zanchetti A. Aspirin and antiplatelet drugs in the prevention of cardiovascular complications in diabetes. In Mogensen CE, editor. Pharmacotherapy of diabetes: new developments
. New York: Springer; 2007. pp. 211–218, chapter 19.
282 Ogawa H, Nakayama M, Morimoto T, Uemura S, Kanauchi M, Doi N, Jinnouchi H, Sugiyama S, Saito Y. Low-dose aspirin for primary prevention of atherosclerotic events in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2008; 300:2134–2141.
283 Jardine MJ, Ninomiya T, Cass A, Turnbull F, Gallagher MP, Zoungas S, Lambers Heerspink A, Zanchetti A, Chalmers J, Perkovic V. Aspirin benefit increases with declining renal function among people with hypertension. J Hypertens 2009; 27(Suppl 4):S178 (abstract).
284 Saudek CD, Derr RL, Kalyani RR. Assessing glycemia in diabetes using self-monitoring blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c. JAMA 2006; 295:1688–1697.
285 ADVANCE Collaborative Group, Patel A, MacMahon S, Chalmers J, Neal B, Billot L, Woodward M, Marre M, Cooper M, Glasziou P, Grobbee D, Hamet P, Harrap S, Heller S, Liu L, Mancia G, Mogensen CE, Pan C, Poulter N, Rodgers A, Williams B, Bompoint S, de Galan BE, Joshi R, Travert F. Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med
286 Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Study Group, Gerstein HC, Miller ME, Byington RP, Goff DC Jr, Bigger JT, Buse JB, Cushman WC, Genuth S, Ismail-Beigi F, Grimm RH Jr, Probstfield JL, Simons-Morton DG, Friedewald WT. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med
287 Zoungas S, de Galan BE, Ninomiya T, Grobbee D, Hamet P, Heller S, Macmahon S, Marre M, Neal B, Patel A, Woodward M, Chalmers J, on behalf of the ADVANCE Collaborative Group. The combined effects of routine blood pressure lowering and intensive glucose control on macrovascular and microvascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes; new results from ADVANCE. Diabetes Care
2009. [Epub ahead of print]
288 UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Intensive blood glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet
289 Duckworth W, Abraira C, Moritz T, Reda D, Emanuele N, Reaven PD, Zieve FJ, Marks J, Davis SN, Hayward R, Warren SR, Goldman S, McCarren M, Vitek ME, Henderson WG, Huang GD. Glucose control and vascular complications in veterans with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2009; 360:129–139.
290 Ray KK, Seshasai SR, Wijesuriya S, Sivakumaran R, Nethercott S, Preiss D, Erqou S, Sattar N. Effect of intensive control of glucose on cardiovascular outcomes and death in patients with diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Lancet 2009; 373:1765–1772.
291 Indian Polycap Study (TIPS). Effects of a polypill (Polycap) on risk factors in middle-aged individuals without cardiovascular disease (TIPS): a phase II, double-blind, randomised trial. Lancet
292 Yusuf S. Two decades of progress in preventing cardiovascular disease. Lancet 2002; 360:2–3.
293 Wald NJ, Law MR. A strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease by more than 80%. BMJ 2003; 326:1419.