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Endothelial factors in the pathogenesis and treatment of chronic kidney disease Part II: Role in disease conditions a joint consensus statement from the European Society of Hypertension Working Group on Endothelin and Endothelial Factors and the Japanese Society of Hypertension

Rossi, Gian, Paoloa; Seccia, Teresa, M.a; Barton, Matthiasb; Danser, A.H., Janc; de Leeuw, Peter, W.d,e; Dhaun, Neerajf; Rizzoni, Damianog,h; Rossignol, Patricki; Ruilope, Luis-Miguelj,k,l; van den Meiracker, Anton, H.c; Ito, Sadayoshim; Hasebe, Naoyukin; Webb, David, J.f

doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000001600
Consensus Documents

After examining in Part I the general mechanisms of endothelial cell injury in the kidney, the Working Group on Endothelin and Endothelial Factors of the European Society of Hypertension and the Japanese Society of Hypertension will herein review current knowledge on the role of endothelial dysfunction in multiple disease conditions that affect the kidney, including diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, solid organ transplantation, hyperhomocysteinemia and antiangiogenic therapy in cancer. The few available randomized controlled clinical trials specifically designed to evaluate strategies for correcting endothelial dysfunction in patients with hypertension and/or chronic kidney disease are also discussed alongside their cardiovascular and renal outcomes.

aDepartment of Medicine – DIMED, University of Padova, Padua, Italy

bMolecular Internal Medicine, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland

cDivision of Pharmacology and Vascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Rotterdam, Rotterdam

dDepartment of Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht

eDepartment of Medicine, Zuyderland Medical Center, Geleen-Heerlen, The Netherlands

fUniversity/British Heart Foundation Centre of Research Excellence, Queen's Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK

gDepartment of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia

hDivision of Medicine, Istituto Clinico Città di Brescia, Brescia, Italy

iInserm, Centre d’Investigations Cliniques-Plurithématique 14–33, Inserm U1116, CHRU Nancy, Université de Lorraine, Association Lorraine de Traitement de l’Insuffisance Rénale, and F-CRIN INI-CRCT (Cardiovascular and Renal Clinical Trialists), Nancy, France

jHypertension Unit, Hospital 12 de Octubre

kDepartment of Postdoctoral Medicine and Investigation, Universidad de Europa

lDepartment of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Universidad Autonomy, Madrid, Spain

mDivision of Nephrology, Endocrinology and Hypertension, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai

nDivision of Cardiology, Nephrology, Pulmonology and Neurology, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Japan

Correspondence to Gian Paolo Rossi, MD, FACC, FAHA, Department of Medicine – DIMED, Clinica dell’Ipertensione Arteriosa, University Hospital, Via Giustiniani, 2, 35128 Padova, Italy. Tel: +39 049 821 7821; e-mail: gianpaolo.rossi@unipd.it

Abbreviations: ACE, angiotensin I converting enzyme; ADMA, asymmetric dimethylarginine; AH, arterial hypertension; Ang II, angiotensin II; ARB, angiotensin AT1 receptor blocker; BP, blood pressure; CKD, chronic kidney disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; eNOS, endothelial nitric oxide synthase; ERA, endothelin receptor antagonist; ESRD, end-stage renal disease; ET-1, endothelin-1; ETA, endothelin type A receptor; GFR, glomerular filtration rate; MTHFR, methylene-tetra-hydro-folate reductase; NO, nitric oxide; NOS, nitric oxide synthase; Nox, NADPH oxidase; RAAS, renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system; RCT, randomized controlled clinical trial; ROS, reactive oxygen species; sFlt-1, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor

Received 11 July, 2017

Revised 6 September, 2017

Accepted 20 September, 2017

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