Ambulatory pulse pressure (PP) a well known predictor of mortality, is widely believed to be a marker for arterial stiffness. However stiffness itself is pressure-dependent.
Developing a model-based method for splitting PP into two components expressing the contribution of a pressure-independent stiffness (‘elastic’, elPP) and the pressure-dependence of stiffness (‘stiffening’, stPP), and investigating their predictive power for all-cause mortality.
Deriving quantitative expressions for elPP and stPP assuming an exponential pressure–volume relationship in arteries, calculated from ambulatory blood pressure (BP) data and estimate standardized hazard ratios with Cox proportional hazards regression in selected patient groups.
Ambulatory BP records of 1999 consecutive hypertensive patients, of whom 103 died from all causes within 5 years, were analyzed. PP, elPP, stPP and stPP/elPP (PP variables) (mean ± SD) were 60 ± 14, 50 ± 10, 10 ± 8 and 0.20 ± 0.14 mmHg, respectively. elPP and stPP were weakly correlated (r = 0.21). Predictive power was found for patients with heart rate less than 70: mean [95% confidence interval] (P value) hazard ratio of PP, stPP and stPP/elPP (adjusted) were 1.48 [1.13–1.95] (P = 0.005), 1.58 [1.20–2.09] (P = 0.001) and 1.78 [1.25–2.52] (P = 0.001), respectively. The elPP (83% of PP) did not show predictive power. None of the PP variables displayed predictive power for the higher-heart-rate subgroup.
Ambulatory PP components provide a novel and clinically valuable tool bridging between PP and arterial properties. Replacing PP by its components, taken as independent variables, may improve predictive power. The prognostic significance of the PP for all-cause mortality in elderly hypertensive patients with lower heart rates is dominated by its smaller component that quantifies arterial stiffening with pressure.
aYazmonit LTD, Eshtaol
bDepartment of Internal Medicine, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel
Correspondence to Benjamin Gavish, CEO, Yazmonit Ltd., PO Box 606, Eshtaol, 9977500, Israel. Tel: +972 52 3438329; e-mail: email@example.com
Received 10 May, 2018
Accepted 31 July, 2018
Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Website (http://www.jhypertension.com).