Multiple trials on sodium–glucose cotransporter (SGLT) inhibitors have been performed recently demonstrating blood pressure (BP) reduction benefits in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Hence, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of different SGLT inhibitors on BP in both patients with and without diabetes mellitus.
Four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and SCOPUS) were searched on 4 November 2021 for articles published from 1 January 2000 up to 21 November 2021, for studies evaluating the BP effects of SGLT inhibitors. Pair-wise meta-analysis and random effects metaregression models were utilized.
In total, 111 studies examining SBP (108 studies, 104 304 patients) and/or DBP (82 studies, 74 719 patients) were included. In patients with diabetes, the random effects model demonstrated SGLT inhibitor produced a mean reduction in SBPs of −3.46 mmHg (95% confidence interval: −3.83, −3.09) compared with placebo. There were no statistically significant changes in BP among patients without diabetes. Drug response relationship was not observed in SGLT inhibitors and BP, except for Canagliflozin and DBP.
Sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and combined sodium–glucose cotransporter 1/2 inhibitors produced small reductions in BP in patients with diabetes.