Background: Coronary artery disease is a common cardiovascular disease caused by atherosclerotic plaque accumulation in epicardial arteries. Atherosclerotic plaque, along with hypoperfusion and oxidative stress may cause cerebral dysfunction that leads to cognitive impairment. This study will further assess the correlation between cardiac function, carotid artery profile, and thus their impact on cognitive impairment.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta between January 2020-June 2021. Inclusion criteria were coronary artery disease; exclusion criteria were history of stroke, brain injury, tumour, or infection. All subjects underwent carotid/transcranial doppler ultrasound and cognitive function examination (MOCA-Ina and MMSE) by certified neurologists. Normal ejection fraction defined as LVEF ≥55%, normal MOCA-Ina as score 26 and above, and normal MMSE as score 25 and above.
Results: Twenty-nine subjects were enrolled in this study. Twenty-four (82.75%) subjects suffered from cognitive impairment where 19 (65.5%) subjects have abnormal MOCA-Ina or MMSE or both and 5 subjects (17.2%) subjects have abnormalities in at least one cognitive function domain. Memory function was the most common domain affected (79.17%), followed by executive function (58.3%), visuospatial (29.17%), attention (8.3%) and language (8.3%). However, the carotid artery ultrasound profile was within normal limits.
Conclusion: Cognitive impairment is common disabling comorbidity found in coronary artery disease with memory function as the most frequent domain affected; although carotid artery profile was normal. Therefore, patients with coronary artery disease should be advised to undergo cognitive function screening and carotid ultrasound, especially those with lower ejection fractions.