Blood pressure (BP) control is important in chronic kidney disease (CKD), but a reduction in brachial BP may not mirror changes in central aortic BP (cBP) during antihypertensive medication. We hypothesize that a fall in cBP is better reflected during enhanced vasodilation treatment (EVT) compared with reduced vasodilation treatment (RVT) because of different hemodynamic actions of these interventions.
Eighty-one hypertensive CKD stage 3–4 patients (mean measured glomerular filtration rate 36 ml/min per 1.73 m2) were randomized to either EVT based on renin--angiotensin blockade and/or amlodipine or RVT based on nonvasodilating β-blockade (metoprolol). Before randomization and following 18 months of treatment, we performed 24-h ambulatory BP measurements (ABPM) and radial artery pulse wave analysis for estimation of cBP and augmentation index (AIx). Forearm resistance (Rrest) was determined by venous occlusion plethysmography and arterial stiffness by carotid--femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Matched healthy controls were studied once for comparison.
Compared with controls, CKD patients had elevated ABPM, cBP and PWV. Although ABPM remained unchanged from baseline to follow-up in both treatment groups, cBP decreased 4.7/2.9 mmHg (systolic/diastolic) during EVT and increased 5.1/1.5 mmHg during RVT (Δ=9.8/4.4 mmHg, P=0.02 for SBP, P = 0.05 for DBP). At follow-up, the difference between systolic cBP and 24-h ABPM (ΔBPsyst) was negatively associated with heart rate and positively associated with AIx and Rrest (all P < 0.01) but not PWV (P = 0.32).
In CKD patients, EVT and RVT have opposite effects on cBP and the difference between cBP and ambulatory BP is larger for EVT than RVT.