Hypertension is highly prevalent in the elderly and represents a major risk factor for cardiovascular complications such as coronary heart disease, stroke, and cognitive dysfunction. Frailty is a common geriatric syndrome characterized by increased risk of disability, hospitalization, and mortality. However, little is known about the frailty status in older adults with hypertension. Thus, we aimed to explore the epidemiological characteristics and related factors of frailty in older Chinese adults with hypertension.
The current study included data collected from participants in the China Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Study. Frailty was defined using the frailty index. Hypertension was defined as SBP at least 140 mmHg, DBP at least 90 mmHg, current treatment with antihypertensive medication, or a self-reported diagnosis of hypertension.
Frailty index was positively correlated with age. The prevalence of frailty was significantly higher in hypertensive patients than in normal controls. The prevalence of frailty in older adults with hypertension was 13.8% in China. The awareness and treatment of hypertension was higher in frail individuals than in nonfrail individuals. The control rate of hypertension did not differ significantly between the two groups. Logistic analysis showed that older age, poor marital status, coronary heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetic mellitus, osteoporosis, hearing loss, lack of exercise, depression, cognitive impairment, and higher white blood cell count were factors independently related with frailty in older participants with hypertension.
The current study provides the first evidence regarding the status of frailty in older Chinese adults with hypertension.