Emerging evidence suggests that serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9
level is elevated in type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, which are closely related with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to determine whether serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9
level is related to atherosclerosis
as measured by brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity
(PWV) and coronary calcium score (CCS).
This cross-sectional study comprised 1732 Korean adults aged at least 45 years who underwent a health examination program. Serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9
level was quantified by chemiluminescence immunoassay and categorized as quartiles, after exclusion of participants with carbohydrate antigen 19-9
levels more than 30 U/ml to rule out hidden malignancy: Q1: 4.5 or less, Q2: 4.6–7.5, Q2: 7.6–12.2, and Q4: at least 12.3 ng/ml. High brachial–ankle PWV was defined as a level greater than 1570 cm/s (>75th percentile), and high CCS was defined as a level over 100. The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for high PWV and high CCS were calculated across serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9
quartiles using multiple logistic regression analysis.
The prevalence of high PWV and high CCS increased with serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9
quartile. Compared with the lowest quartile, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of the highest carbohydrate antigen 19-9
quartile for high PWV and high CCS were 1.61 (1.05–2.48) and 2.03 (1.17–3.54), respectively, after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, smoking status, alcohol consumption, regular exercise, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia.
We found that serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9
level was positively and independently associated with arterial stiffness and coronary artery calcification