The objective was to assess the differences between the 2016 European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and the 2017 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) hypertension (HTN) guidelines in the distribution of office blood pressure (BP) categories as well as in the office and ambulatory BP mismatches.
Material and methods:
The study included 4940 clinical evaluations performed in 2957 youth (5–18 years) of both sexes. BP and anthropometric parameters were measured following standard conditions. The classification of the BP measurements was normotension, high-normal, stages 1 and 2 HTN, following the criteria of both guidelines. In a subgroup of 2467 participants, 3941 office BP assessment was completed with 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring using an oscillometric monitor under standard conditions. The classification on white-coat (WCH) and masked HTN was recorded.
The AAP classified more participants, 70 per 1000 BP evaluations in the categories of high-normal and stage 1 HTN, than the ESH did. The differences were greater in obese, but also present in normal weight participants. Likewise, significant discrepancies were observed in the prevalence of WCH and masked HTN. The AAP identified more participants with WCH, with greater differences in older participants, mainly in boys, independent of weight category. In contrast, the ESH identified more participants with masked HTN. The excess of WCH by AAP was three times higher than the excess of masked HTN by ESH.
The application of the two guidelines may result in marked differences in the classification of high-normal BP and HTN and in the mismatched conditions when ambulatory BP monitoring is applied.