Experimental studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acid have favorable effects on blood pressure (BP). However, data on the association of long-term dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acid or fish with risk of hypertension in healthy subjects are sparse. We examined whether fish or omega-3 fatty acid consumption was associated with incident hypertension in the Physicians’ Health Study (PHS).
In a prospective cohort study, we analyzed data on 12 279 PHS participants (mean age: 53.0 ± 8.7 years) free of hypertension at baseline. Fish and omega-3 fatty acid consumption were assessed from a baseline semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Incident hypertension was ascertained via self-reports on annual follow-up questionnaires.
During a mean follow-up of 15.8 years, 6299 men (51.3%) developed hypertension. In a multivariable model controlling for established risk factors for hypertension, fish and omega-3 fatty acid consumption was not significantly associated with incident hypertension. The hazard ratio (95% CI) of hypertension was 1.10 (0.93–1.30) for men who consumed at least five servings per week of fish compared with those who did not consume any fish (P for trend = 0.29). For the highest versus lowest quintile of omega-3 fatty acid intake, the hazard ratio of hypertension was 1.02 (0.94–1.11) (P for trend = 0.34). The associations did not vary by type of fish. There was also no evidence of effect modification by baseline BP, BMI, or history of hypercholesterolemia.
Overall, long-term dietary intake of fish and omega-3 fatty acid was not associated with incident hypertension in a cohort of middle-aged and older US men.
aDivision of Aging, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
bDepartment of Cardiology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York
cDivision of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital
dBoston Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
eDepartment of Cardiology, Center for Health Surveillance and Preventive Medicine, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan
Correspondence to Chisa Matsumoto, MSc, MD, PhD, Department of Cardiology, Center for Health Surveillance and Preventive Medicine, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan 6-7-1 Nishishinnjyuku, Shinnjyuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan 160 0023, Tel: +81 3 3342 6111; fax: +81 3 5381 6652; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abbreviations: AHAA, merican Heart Association; BP, blood pressure; CHD, coronary heart disease; CI, confidence intervals; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; GLM, generalized linear model; PHS, Physicians’ Health Study
Received 25 January, 2018
Revised 11 January, 2019
Accepted 12 January, 2019
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