Hyperuricemia has been associated with high blood pressure (BP) values, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease (CKD). In the present study, we assessed the gender-related relationships between serum uric acid (SUA) and cardionephrometabolic variables in central and east European hypertensive patients.
A total of 3206 treated hypertensive patients with available SUA levels from the BP-CARE study was analyzed. Correlations among SUA, BP values, BP control, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and CKD were performed according to gender.
Twenty-five percent of the whole population showed hyperuricemia (28% in women and 23% in men). These patients were older and showed a greater burden of cardiovascular risk factors (high BP, BMI, glucose, total cholesterol and triglyceridemia). They also showed a greater prevalence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, rate of uncontrolled BP, more than high cardiovascular risk and CKD. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and uncontrolled BP was similar in normouricemic and hyperuricemic women, the latter displaying a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus, high cardiovascular risk and CKD. Hyperuricemic men were characterized by a greater prevalence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, high cardiovascular risk, rate of uncontrolled BP and CKD but not polytherapy. Logistic regression analysis showed that none of the evaluated variables, except CKD, displayed SUA as significant covariate.
Our findings provide evidence that a high prevalence of hyperuricemia occurs in hypertensive patients from central and east Europe. The data also show that gender-related differences in the association between SUA and cardionephrometabolic variables exist. This is also the case for the relationships between SUA and CKD.
aPediatric Department of Consorcio Hospital General Universitario de Valencia
bCIBER Fisiopatología Obesidad y Nutrición, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Valencia, Spain
cDepartment of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy
dHypertension Clinic, Hospital Clinico, INCLIVA, University of Valencia, Spain
eIRCCS Multimedica, Sesto San Giovanni (Milan), Italy
Correspondence to Professor Guido Grassi, Clinica Medica, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Pergolesi 33, 20090 Monza, Italy. Tel: +39 039/233 3357; E-mail: email@example.com
Abbreviations: BP, blood pressure; CKD, chronic kidney disease; SUA, serum uric acid; TOD, preclinical target organ damage
Received 4 April, 2018
Accepted 18 July, 2018